Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Plant and Animal Taxa That Are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species

Summary

In this notice the Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) presents an updated list of plant and animal taxa native to the United States that are regarded as candidates for possible addition to the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). Identification of candidate species can assist environmental planning efforts by providing advance notice of potential listings, allowing resource managers to alleviate threats and thereby possibly remove the need to list species as endangered or threatened. Even if a candidate species is subsequently listed, the early notice provided here could result in fewer restrictions on activities by prompting candidate conservation measures to alleviate threats to the species.

Full text

SUMMARY: In this notice the Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) 
presents an updated list of plant and animal taxa native to the United 
States that are regarded as candidates for possible addition to the 
List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants under the 
Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). Identification of 
candidate species can assist environmental planning efforts by 
providing advance notice of potential listings, allowing resource 
managers to alleviate threats and thereby possibly remove the need to 
list species as endangered or threatened. Even if a candidate species 
is subsequently listed, the early notice provided here could result in 
fewer restrictions on activities by prompting candidate conservation 
measures to alleviate threats to the species.
    Through the publication of this notice, the Service requests 
additional status information that may be available for the identified 
candidate species and information indicating that species not presently 
regarded as candidates should be included in future updates of this 
list. This information will be considered in preparing listing 
documents and future revisions or supplements to the notice of review. 
It will also help the Service monitor changes in the status of 
candidate species and in candidate conservation activities.

DATES: Comments are requested until the publication of an update of 
this notice, anticipated in February, 1997.

ADDRESSES: Interested persons or organizations should submit comments 
regarding particular taxa to the Regional Director of the Region 
identified as having the lead responsibility for that taxon. Comments 
of a more general nature may be submitted to the Chief, Division of 
Endangered Species, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1849 C Street, 
N.W., Mail Stop 452 ARLSQ, Washington, D.C. 20240 (703-358-2171). 
Written comments and materials received in response to this notice will 
be available for public inspection by appointment in the Regional 
Offices listed below.
    Information relating to particular taxa in this notice may be 
obtained from the Service's Endangered Species Coordinator in the lead 
Regional Office identified for each taxon and listed below:
    Region 1. California, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, 
Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Pacific Territories of the United 
States, and Washington.
    Regional Director (TE), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Eastside 
Federal Complex, 911 N.E. 11th Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97232-4181 
(503-231-6131).
    Region 2. Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas.
    Regional Director (TE), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, P.O. Box 
1306, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87103 (505-766-3972).
    Region 3. Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, 
Ohio, and Wisconsin.
    Regional Director (TE), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Federal 
Building, Fort Snelling, Twin Cities, Minnesota 55111 (612-725-3276).
    Region 4. Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, 
Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Puerto Rico, 
and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
    Regional Director (TE), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1875 
Century Boulevard, Atlanta, Georgia 30345 (404-679-7096).
    Region 5. Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Maine, 
Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, 
Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia, and West Virginia.
    Regional Director (TE), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 300 
Westgate Center Drive, Hadley, Massachusetts 01035-9589. (413-253-8300)
    Region 6. Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South 
Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming.
    Regional Director (TE), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, P.O. Box 
25486, Denver Federal Center, Denver, Colorado 80225 (303-236-7398).
    Region 7. Alaska.
    Regional Director (TE), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1011 East 
Tudor Street, Anchorage, Alaska 99503 (907-786-3520).

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Endangered Species Coordinator(s) in 
the appropriate Regional Office(s) at the above phone numbers or Chief, 
Division of Endangered Species, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
Washington, D.C. 20240, (703-358-2171).

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Background

    The Endangered Species Act (Act) of 1973, as amended, (16 U.S.C. 
1531 et seq.) requires the Service to identify species of wildlife and 
plants that are endangered or threatened, based on the best available 
scientific and commercial information. As part of the program to 
accomplish this, the Service has maintained a list of species regarded 
as candidates for listing. The Service maintains this list for a 
variety of reasons, including--to provide advance knowledge of 
potential listings that could affect decisions of environmental 
planners and developers; to solicit input from interested parties to 
identify those candidate species that may not require protection under 
the Act or additional species that may require the Act's protections; 
and to solicit information needed to prioritize the order in which 
species will be proposed for listing. At present, there are 182 taxa 
included in Table 1 of this notice that are considered by the Service 
as candidates for possible addition to the List of Endangered and 
Threatened Plants, as well as 238 U.S. taxa for which proposed rules to 
list have been issued. The Service encourages their consideration in 
environmental planning, such as in environmental impact analysis under 
the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (implemented at 40 CFR 
Parts 1500-1508). Information regarding the range, status, and habitat 
needs of these species is available from the Service's Headquarters and 
Regional Offices (see ``ADDRESSES'' above).

Previous Notices of Review

    The Act directed the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution to 
prepare a report on endangered and threatened plant species, which was 
published as House Document No. 94-51. The Service published a notice 
on July 1, 1975 (40 FR 27823), in which it announced that more than 
3,000 native plant taxa (plants with formal scientific names) named in 
the Smithsonian's report and other taxa added by the 1975 notice would 
be reviewed for possible inclusion in the List of Endangered and 
Threatened Plants. The 1975 notice was superseded on December 15, 1980 
(45 FR 82479), by a new comprehensive notice of review for native 
plants that took into account the earlier Smithsonian report and other 
accumulated information. On November 28, 1983 (48 FR 53640), a 
supplemental plant notice of review noted changes in the status of 
various taxa. The Service published complete updates of the plant notice on September 27, 1985 (50 FR 39526), February 21, 1990 (55 FR 
6184), and September 30, 1993 (58 FR 51144). All previous plant notices 
of review are superseded by this notice.
    Previous animal notices of review included many of the animal taxa 
in the accompanying Table 1. The Service published earlier 
comprehensive reviews for vertebrate animals in the Federal Register on 
December 30, 1982 (47 FR 58454) and on September 18, 1985 (50 FR 
37958). An initial comprehensive review for invertebrate animals was 
published on May 22, 1984 (49 FR 21664). The Service published a 
combined animal notice of review on January 6, 1989 (54 FR 554) and 
with minor corrections on August 10, 1989 (54 FR 32833). The Service 
again published comprehensive notices on November 21, 1991 (56 FR 
58804), and November 15, 1994 (59 FR 58982). This revised notice 
supersedes all previous animal notices of review.

Relation to Prior Notices of Review

    Two classes of species are included in Table 1 of this notice--(1) 
proposed species are those species for which a proposed rule to list as 
endangered or threatened has been published in the Federal Register 
(exclusive of species for which the proposed rule has been withdrawn or 
finalized), and, (2) candidate species are those species for which the 
Service has on file sufficient information on biological vulnerability 
and threat(s) to support issuance of a proposed rule to list but 
issuance of the proposed rule is precluded. In previous notices of 
review, species described by item (2) were known as Category 1 
candidates. They are now referred to simply as candidate species. The 
Service emphasizes that these candidate taxa are not being proposed for 
listing by this notice, but development and publication of proposed 
rules for such candidate taxa is anticipated. The Service will 
determine the relative listing priority of these candidate species in 
accordance with listing priority guidelines published in the September 
12, 1983 edition of the Federal Register (48 FR 43098-43105). The 
Service encourages other Federal agencies to give consideration to 
these taxa in environmental planning.
    Previous notices of review provided cross references for taxa that 
experienced changes in their scientific names by indicating these as 
synonyms. As needed, the practice is continued in this notice.
    In former notices of review, the Service identified Category 2 
candidates as taxa for which information in the possession of the 
Service indicated that proposing to list as endangered or threatened 
was possibly appropriate, but for which sufficient data on biological 
vulnerability and threat were not currently available to support 
proposed rules. The quality of information varied greatly among the 
former Category 2 species, but they all shared one trait--sufficient 
information to justify issuance of a proposed rule was lacking. The 
designation of Category 2 species as candidates resulted in confusion 
about the conservation status of these taxa. To reduce that confusion, 
and to clarify that the Service does not regard these species as 
candidates for listing, the Service is discontinuing the designation of 
Category 2 species as candidates in this notice. The Service remains 
concerned about these species, but further biological research and 
field study are needed to resolve the conservation status of these 
taxa. Many species of concern will be found not to warrant listing, 
either because they are not threatened or endangered or because they do 
not qualify as species under the definition in the Act. Others may be 
found to be in greater danger of extinction than some present candidate 
taxa. The Service is working with the States and other private and 
public interests to assess their need for protection under the Act. 
Such species are the pool from which future candidates for listing will 
be drawn.
    In previous plant notices of review, single asterisks were used to 
indicate taxa in categories 1 and 2 that were believed to be possibly 
gone from the wild, and double asterisks to indicate any such taxa that 
were also known to be extant in cultivation. Such species do not meet 
the definition established for candidates. Since the practice does not 
apply to candidate species, it is discontinued in this notice.
    Taxa that once were considered for listing as threatened or 
endangered but are no longer under such consideration were historically 
included in Category 3. Such taxa were further divided into three 
subcategories to indicate the reason(s) for their removal from 
consideration. The subcategories associated with the former Category 3 
status were described as follows:
    3A--Taxa for which the Service has persuasive evidence of 
extinction. If rediscovered, such taxa might acquire high priority for 
listing. At this time, however, the best available information 
indicates that the taxa in this subcategory, or the habitats from which 
they were known, have been lost.
    3B--Names that, on the basis of current taxonomic understanding 
(usually as represented in published revisions and monographs), do not 
represent distinct taxa meeting the Act's definition of ``species.'' 
Such supposed taxa could be reevaluated in the future on the basis of 
new information.
    3C--Taxa that have proven to be more abundant or widespread than 
previously believed as well as taxa that are not subject to any 
identifiable threat. If further research or changes in habitat indicate 
a significant decline in any of these taxa, they may be reevaluated for 
possible inclusion as candidates. The designation of Category 3 is 
discontinued, but the Service will retain all Category 3 information in 
case future reviews are conducted on these taxa. Future notices of 
review will only mention such taxa if they were included in the 
previous notice of review as candidate species.
    Taxa that were placed in Category 3 are not candidates for listing. 
The Service is aware of some misinterpretations that have been made of 
Category 3 subcategories in the past. In particular, Category 3A has 
been interpreted as either a comprehensive compilation of extinct 
species or as a list of species that became extinct while undergoing 
status review. Neither interpretation is correct. In fact, status 
review of the overwhelming majority of species identified in Category 
3A revealed that extinction occurred well before passage of the 
Endangered Species Act of 1973. A common misinterpretation of Category 
3C is that a status review indicates those species have special 
sensitivity or vulnerability to extinction. Although this might be true 
of some of them, it is not necessarily true of all or even a majority 
of them.

Current Notice

    The Service gathers data on plants and animals native to the United 
States that appear to merit consideration for addition to the List of 
Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. This notice identifies 
those species (including, by definition, biological subspecies and 
certain distinct population segments of vertebrate animals) that are 
presently regarded by the Service as candidates for addition to the 
List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. In issuing this 
compilation, the Service relies on information from status surveys 
conducted for candidate assessment and on information from State 
Heritage Programs, other State and Federal Agencies (such as the Forest 
Service and the Bureau of Land Management), knowledgeable scientists, 
public and private natural resource interests, and comments received in response to previous notices of review.
    Tables 1 and 2 are arranged alphabetically by names of genera, 
species, and relevant subspecies under the major group headings (class 
or order as it provides a practical grouping) for animals first, then 
plants. Useful synonyms and subgeneric scientific names appear in 
parentheses (the synonyms preceded by an equal sign) and are displaced 
to the right in some instances to avoid affecting the alphabetical 
order. Some taxa that have not yet been formally described in the 
scientific literature have been included. Such taxa are identified by a 
generic or specific name (in italics) followed by ``sp.'' or ``ssp.'' 
(not italicized, or alphabetized).
    Standardized common names are incorporated in these notices as they 
become available. The flux in common names, the inclusion of vernacular 
and composite subspecific names, and the fact that a majority of 
invertebrates still lack a standardized name combine to make common 
names relatively useless for organizing the tables. This notice also 
presents a group name (in parentheses) for many species, notably 
mollusks and insects, whose standardized common name given alone would 
have little recognition value to most readers.
    Table 1 lists all species proposed for listing and species regarded 
by the Service as candidates for listing under the Act. Table 2 lists 
those species that were classified either as proposed for listing or 
Category 1 candidates in the 1993 plant notice of review or the 1994 
animal notice of review, but are no longer classified as candidates or 
proposed species. Many of the species in Table 2 do not meet the 
information standards prescribed for candidate species. Some require 
additional research or status reviews before their conservation status 
under the Act can be resolved. As such information becomes available, 
the Service will evaluate whether these species warrant protection 
under the Act.
    Taxa in Table 1 of this notice are assigned to several status 
categories, noted in the ``Category'' column at the left side of the 
table.
    Codes for the category status column of taxa in Table 1 are 
explained below:
    PE--Taxa proposed to be listed as endangered.
    PT--Taxa proposed to be listed as threatened.
    Y--Synonyms of taxa that are listed elsewhere in Table 1.
    C--Taxa for which the Service has on file sufficient information on 
biological vulnerability and threat(s) to support proposals to list 
them as endangered or threatened species. Proposed rules have not yet 
been issued because this action is precluded at present by other 
listing activity. Development and publication of proposed rules for 
these taxa are anticipated. The Service encourages State and other 
Federal agencies as well as other affected parties to give 
consideration to these taxa in environmental planning.
    The column labeled ``Priority'' indicates the listing priority 
number for candidate species. This number is assigned on the basis of 
immediacy and magnitude of threats as well as taxonomic status. A 
complete description of the Service's listing priority system was 
published in a September 21, 1983 Federal Register notice (48 FR 
43098).
    Column 3 identifies the Regional office (numeric code) to which 
comments or questions should be directed (see ADDRESSES section). 
Comments received in response to the 1993 plant notice of review and 
1994 animal notice of review were provided for review to the Region 
having lead responsibility for each candidate taxon mentioned in the 
comment. The Service will likewise consider all information provided in 
response to this notice of review in deciding whether or not to propose 
species for listing and when to undertake necessary listing actions. 
Comments received will become part of the administrative record for the 
species mentioned.
    Following the scientific name of each taxon (fourth column) is the 
family designation (fifth column) and any common name (sixth column). 
The seventh column provides the known historical ranges for all 
included taxa, indicated by postal code abbreviations for States and 
U.S. possessions (many taxa may no longer occur in all of the areas 
shown). In the section on birds, the abbreviation ``N'' indicates the 
nesting range of the species, and the abbreviation ``V'' indicates 
additional areas in which the species spends other parts of its life 
cycle.
    Taxa in Table 2 of this notice were included either as proposed 
species or as Category 1 candidates in the 1993 plant notice of review 
or the 1994 animal notice of review but have since been removed from 
such status for a variety of reasons. Many of the species listed in the 
last notices of review as proposed have now been added to the lists of 
Endangered or Threatened Wildlife and Plants. The first column 
indicates the present status of the species, using the following codes:
    E--Taxa that have been listed as endangered.
    T--Taxa that have been listed as threatened.
    R--Taxa for which currently available information does not support 
issuance of a proposed listing.
    Y--Synonyms of taxa listed elsewhere in Table 2.
    The second column provides a coded explanation of why the species 
is no longer regarded as a candidate species. Descriptions of the codes 
are as follows:
    A--Taxa that have proven to be more abundant or widespread than 
previously believed or those that are not subject to any identifiable 
threat.
    F--Taxa removed from candidate status because the range is no 
longer a U.S. Territory.
    I--Taxa for which the Service has insufficient information on 
biological vulnerability and threat(s) to support issuance of a 
proposed rule to list.
    L--Taxa added to the lists of endangered or threatened wildlife and 
plants.
    M--Taxa mistakenly included as Category 1 in the last plant or 
animal notice of review.
    N--Taxa that on the basis of current taxonomic understanding may 
not meet the Act's definition of ``species''.
    X--Taxa that are believed to be extinct.
    The columns describing lead agency and region, scientific name, 
family, common name, and historic range include information as 
previously described for Table 1.

Summary

    Over the past year, the Service completed an exhaustive review of 
the candidate species to ensure that they truly warranted issuance of a 
proposed listing and to reevaluate the relative listing priority of 
each species. The Service undertook this effort to ensure that it was 
focusing conservation efforts on those species at greatest risk. As of 
the date of this publication, there are 159 plants and 34 animals 
proposed for endangered status; 37 plants and 8 animals proposed for 
threatened status; and 84 plant and 98 animal candidates awaiting 
preparation of proposed rules (see Table 1). Including synonyms, there 
are 303 taxa that were classified as either proposed for listing or 
Category 1 candidates in the 1993 plant notice of review or 1994 animal 
notice of review that are no longer classified in those categories (see 
Table 2).

Request for Information

    The Service hereby requests that any further information on the 
taxa named in this notice be submitted as soon as possible or whenever 
it becomes available. Especially sought is information: (1) indicating that a taxon should be removed from this list;
    (2) indicating that a taxon not included in the notice should be 
added to the list of candidate species;
    (3) recommending an area as critical habitat for a candidate taxon, 
or indicating that a proposal of critical habitat would not be prudent 
for a taxon;
    (4) documenting threats to any of the included taxa;
    (5) describing the immediacy or magnitude of threats facing 
candidate taxa;
    (6) pointing out taxonomic or nomenclatural changes for any of the 
taxa;
    (7) suggesting appropriate common names; or
    (8) noting any mistakes, such as errors in the indicated historical 
distributions.
    The Service will consider all information received in response to 
this notice. Substantive changes will be announced by periodic 
supplemental or revised notices in the Federal Register.

Author

    This notice was compiled from evaluations by the staff biologists 
in the Service's Regional Offices and Field Stations. It was compiled 
and edited by Drs. George Drewry and Richard Sayers, Jr., of the 
Service's Headquarters Office.

List of Subjects in 50 CFR Part 17

    Endangered and threatened species, Exports, Imports, Reporting and 
recordkeeping requirements, and Transportation.

Authority

    This notice is published under the authority of the Endangered 
Species Act (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.).

    Dated: February 16, 1996.
John G. Rogers,
Acting Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

                                                                       Table 1--Proposed and Candidate Animals and Plants                                                                       
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Status                                                                                                                                                                                
--------------------------  Lead Re-                     Scientific name                              Family                                Common name                        Historic range   
 Cate-gory     Prior-ity      gion                                                                                                                                                              
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                                                                                                
                                       Mammals...........................................                                                                                                       
C..........  3...........  R2........  Conepatus leuconotus texensis.....................  Mustelidae..................  Skunk, Gulf Coast hog-nosed......................  U.S.A. (TX), Mexico.
C..........  3...........  R1........  Dipodomys merriami parvus.........................  Heteromyidae................  Kangaroo rat, San Bernadino Merriam's............  U.S.A. (CA).        
C..........  3...........  R1........  Emballonura semicaudata...........................  Emballonuridae..............  Bat, sheath-tailed (Agiguan, American Samoa        U.S.A. (AS, CM      
                                                                                                                          populations).                                      (Agiguan)).        
C..........  3...........  R1........  Neotoma fuscipes riparia..........................  Muridae.....................  Woodrat, San Joaquin Valley......................  U.S.A. (CA).        
PE.........  ............  R1........  Ovis canadensis cremnobates.......................  Bovidae.....................  Bighorn sheep, Peninsular Ranges population......  U.S.A. (CA), Mexico.
PE.........  ............  R2........  Panthera onca.....................................  Felidae.....................  Jaguar, U.S. population..........................  U.S.A. (AZ, CA, LA, 
                                                                                                                                                                             NM, TX).           
C..........  3...........  R4........  Peromyscus polionotus peninsularis................  Muridae.....................  Mouse, St. Andrews beach.........................  U.S.A. (FL).        
C..........  3...........  R1........  Pteropus mariannus mariannus......................  Pteropodidae................  Flying fox, Mariana (Agiguan, Tinian, Saipan       U.S.A. (MP).        
                                                                                                                          pops.).                                                               
C..........  6...........  R1........  Sorex ornatus relictus............................  Soricidae...................  Shrew, Buena Vista Lake ornate...................  U.S.A. (CA).        
C..........  3...........  R1........  Spermophilus brunneus brunneus....................  Sciuridae...................  Squirrel, Northern Idaho ground..................  U.S.A. (ID).        
C..........  3...........  R1........  Sylvilagus bachmani riparius......................  Leporidae...................  Rabbit, Riparian brush...........................  U.S.A. (CA).        
C..........  12..........  R4........  Ursus americanus floridanus.......................  Ursidae.....................  Bear, Florida black..............................  U.S.A. (FL, GA).    
C..........  8...........  R6........  Vulpes velox......................................  Canidae.....................  Fox, Swift (U.S. population).....................  U.S.A. (CO, IA, KS, 
                                                                                                                                                                             MN, MT, ND, NE, NM,
                                                                                                                                                                             OK, SD, TX, WY).   
                                                                                                                                                                                                
                                       Birds.............................................                                                                                                       
C..........  2...........  R6........  Charadrius montanus...............................  Charadriidae................  Plover, mountain.................................  N=CO, KS, MT, ND,   
                                                                                                                                                                             NE, NM, OK, SD, TX,
                                                                                                                                                                             UT, WY; V=AZ, CA,  
                                                                                                                                                                             NV, Mexico.        
Y..........  ............  R1........  Chasiempis sandwichensis gayi.....................  *** see ***.................  Chasiempis sandwichensis ibidus..................  ....................
C..........  3...........  R1........  Chasiempis sandwichensis ibidus...................  Musicapidae.................  Elepaio, Oahu....................................  U.S.A. (HI).        
C..........  6...........  R1........  Gallicolumba stairi...............................  Columbidae..................  Dove, Friendly ground............................  U.S.A. (AS).        
PE.........  ............  R2........  Glaucidium brasilianum cactorum...................  Strigidae...................  Pygmy-owl, cactus ferruginous (AZ population)....  U.S.A. (AZ, TX),    
                                                                                                                                                                             Mexico.            
PT.........  ............  R2........  Glaucidium brasilianum cactorum...................  Strigidae...................  Pygmy-owl, cactus ferruginous (TX population)....  U.S.A. (AZ, TX),    
                                                                                                                                                                             Mexico.            
C..........  5...........  R1........  Oreomystis bairdi.................................  Fringillidae................  Creeper, Kauai...................................  U.S.A. (Hl).        
PT.........  ............  R7........  Polysticta stelleri...............................  Anatidae....................  Eider, Steller's (AK breeding pop.)..............  U.S.A. (AK), Russia.
C..........  6...........  R1........  Porzana tubuensis.................................  Rallidae....................  Crake, spotless..................................  U.S.A. (AS).        
C..........  6...........  R1........  Ptilinopus perousii perousii......................  Columbidae..................  Dove, many-colored fruit.........................  U.S.A. (AS).        
C..........  6...........  R1........  Zosterops conspicillatus rotensis.................  Zosteropidae................  White-eye, Rota bridled..........................  U.S.A. (MP).        
                                                                                                                                                                                                
                                       Reptiles..........................................                                                                                                       
PE.........  ............  R1........  Anniella pulchra nigra............................  Anniellidae.................  Lizard, black legless............................  U.S.A. (CA).        
C..........  3...........  R5........  Clemmys muhlenbergii..............................  Emydidae....................  Turtle, Bog (northern pop.)......................  U.S.A. (CT, DE, MA, 
                                                                                                                                                                             MD, NY, NJ, PA,    
                                                                                                                                                                             RI).               
C..........  5...........  R2........  Graptemys caglei..................................  Emydidae....................  Turtle, Cagle's map..............................  U.S.A. (TX). PE.........  ............  R1........  Masticophis lateralis euryxanthus.................  Colubridae..................  Whipsnake, (=striped racer) Alameda..............  U.S.A. (CA).        
PT.........  ............  R3........  Nerodia erythrogaster neglecta....................  Colubridae..................  Snake, northern copperbelly water................  U.S.A. (IL, IN, KY, 
                                                                                                                                                                             MI, OH).           
PT.........  ............  R3........  Nerodia sipedon insularum.........................  Colubridae..................  Snake, Lake Erie water...........................  U.S.A. (OH), Canada.
PT.........  ............  R1........  Phrynosoma mcallii................................  Iguanidae...................  Lizard, flat-tailed horned.......................  U.S.A. (AZ, CA),    
                                                                                                                                                                             Mexico.            
                                                                                                                                                                                                
                                       Amphibians........................................                                                                                                       
C..........  8...........  R1........  Ambystoma californiense (=A. tigrinum c.).........  Ambystomatidae..............  Salamander, California tiger.....................  U.S.A. (CA).        
PE.........  ............  R2........  Ambystoma tigrinum stebbinsi......................  Ambystomatidae..............  Sonoran tiger salamander.........................  U.S.A. (AZ), Mexico.
C..........  3...........  R6........  Bufo boreas boreas................................  Bufonidae...................  Toad, boreal (Southern Rocky Mountain population)  U.S.A. (CO, NM, WY).
PT.........  ............  R4........  Eleutherodactylus cooki...........................  Leptodactylidae.............  Guajon or rock frog..............................  U.S.A. (PR).        
PE.........  ............  R2........  Eurycea sosorum...................................  Plethodontidae..............  Salamander, Barton Springs.......................  U.S.A. (TX).        
PE.........  ............  R1........  Rana aurora draytoni..............................  Ranidae.....................  Frog , California red-legged.....................  U.S.A. (CA), Mexico.
C..........  2...........  R2........  Rana chiricahuensis...............................  Ranidae.....................  Frog, Chiricahua leopard.........................  U.S.A. (AZ, NM),    
                                                                                                                                                                             Mexico.            
C..........  6...........  R1........  Rana pretiosa.....................................  Ranidae.....................  Spotted frog (Great Basin pop.)..................  U.S.A. (ID, NV)     
C..........  3...........  R6........  Rana pretiosa.....................................  Ranidae.....................  Frog, spotted (Wasatch Front pop. UT)............  U.S.A. (UT).        
C..........  6...........  R1........  Rana pretiosa.....................................  Ranidae.....................  Spotted frog (West Coast pop.)...................  U.S.A. (CA, OR, WA) 
C..........  6...........  R6........  Rana pretiosa.....................................  Ranidae.....................  Frog, spotted (West Desert pop. UT)..............  U.S.A. (UT).        
C..........  2...........  R2........  Rana subaquavocalis...............................  Ranidae.....................  Frog, Ramsey Canyon leopard......................  U.S.A. (AZ).        
                                                                                                                                                                                                
                                       Fishes............................................                                                                                                       
C..........  2...........  R2........  Cyprinodon pecosensis.............................  Cyprinodontidae.............  Pupfish, Pecos...................................  U.S.A. (NM, TX).    
C..........  2...........  R2........  Dionda diaboli....................................  Cyprinidae..................  Minnow, Devils River.............................  U.S.A. (TX), Mexico.
C..........  5...........  R6........  Etheostoma cragini................................  Percidae....................  Darter, Arkansas.................................  U.S.A. (AR, CO, KS, 
                                                                                                                                                                             MO, OK).           
C..........  3...........  R1........  Gila bicolor ssp..................................  Cyprindidae.................  High Rock Springs tui chub.......................  U.S.A. (CA).        
C..........  3...........  R1........  Gila bicolor vaccaceps............................  Cyprinidae..................  Tui chub, Cowhead Lake...........................  U.S.A. (CA).        
PE.........  ............  R6........  Iotichthys phlegethontis..........................  Cyprinidae..................  Chub, least......................................  U.S.A. (UT).        
C..........  2...........  R6........  Macrhybopsis (=Hybopsis) gelida...................  Cyprinidae..................  Chub, sturgeon...................................  U.S.A. (AR, IA, IL, 
                                                                                                                                                                             KY, KS, LA, MO, MS,
                                                                                                                                                                             MT, NE, ND, SD, TN,
                                                                                                                                                                             WY).               
C..........  2...........  R6........  Macrhybopsis (=Hybopsis) meeki....................  Cyprinidae..................  Chub, sicklefin..................................  U.S.A. (AR, IA, IL, 
                                                                                                                                                                             KS, KY, LA, MO, MS,
                                                                                                                                                                             NE, ND, SD, TN).   
PE.........  ............  R2........  Notropis girardi..................................  Cyprinidae..................  Shiner, Arkansas River (native pop. only)........  U.S.A. (AR, KS, NM, 
                                                                                                                                                                             OK, TX).           
C..........  2...........  R6........  Notropis topeka (=tristis)........................  Cyprinidae..................  Shiner, Topeka...................................  U.S.A. (IA, KS, MN, 
                                                                                                                                                                             MO, NE, SD).       
C..........  3...........  R1........  Oncorhynchus (=Salmo) mykiss ssp..................  Salmonidae..................  Trout, McCloud R. redband........................  U.S.A. (CA).        
PT.........  ............  R1........  Pogonichthys macrolepidotus.......................  Cyprinidae..................  Splittail, Sacramento............................  U.S.A. (CA).        
PT.........  ............  R5........  Salmo salar.......................................  Salmonidae..................  Atlantic salmon (distinct pop. in 7 Maine rivers)  U.S.A., Canada,     
                                                                                                                                                                             Greenland, western 
                                                                                                                                                                             Europe             
C..........  9...........  R1........  Salvelinus confluentus............................  Salmonidae..................  Trout, bull......................................  U.S.A. (CA, ID, MT, 
                                                                                                                                                                             NV, OR, WA).       
C..........  9...........  R6........  Thymallus arcticus................................  Salmonidae..................  Grayling, Arctic (Upper Missouri R. fluvial pop.)  U.S.A. (MT, WY).    
Y..........  ............  R6........  Thymallus arcticus montanus.......................  *** see ***.................  Thymallus arcticus...............................  ....................
                                                                                                                                                                                                
                                       Clams.............................................                                                                                                       
PE.........  ............  R4........  Alasmidonta atropurpurea (Rafinesque, 1831).......  Unionidae...................  Elktoe, Cumberland...............................  U.S.A. (KY, TN).    
PE.........  ............  R4........  Amblema neislerii (I.Lea, 1858)...................  Unionidae...................  Mussel, fat three-ridge..........................  U.S.A. (FL, GA).    
PE.........  ............  R4........  Elliptio chipolaensis.............................  Unionidae...................  Slabshell, Chipola...............................  U.S.A. (AL, FL).    
PE.........  ............  R4........  Elliptoideus sloatianus (I. Lea, 1840)............  Unionidae...................  Bankclimber, purple..............................  U.S.A. (AL, GA, FL).
PE.........  ............  R4........  Epioblasma brevidens (I. Lea, 1831)...............  Unionidae...................  Combshell, Cumberlandian.........................  U.S.A. (AL, KY, TN, 
                                                                                                                                                                             VA).               
PE.........  ............  R4........  Epioblasma capsaeformis (I. Lea, 1834)............  Unionidae...................  Mussel, oyster...................................  U.S.A. (AL, KY, TN, 
                                                                                                                                                                             VA).               
PE.........  ............  R4........  Lampsilis subangulata (I.Lea, 1840)...............  Unionidae...................  Pocketbook, shiny-rayed..........................  U.S.A. (AL, FL, GA).
PE.........  ............  R4........  Medionidus penicillatus...........................  Unionidae...................  Gulf moccasinshell...............................  U.S.A. (AL, FL, GA).
PE.........  ............  R4........  Medionidus simpsonianus...........................  Unionidae...................  Ochlockonee moccasinshell........................  U.S.A. (FL, GA).    
PE.........  ............  R4........  Pleurobema pyriforme (I.Lea, 1857)................  Unionidae...................  Pigtoe, oval.....................................  U.S.A. (AL, FL, GA). PE.........  ............  R4........  Quadrula cylindrica strigillata (B.H.Wright, 1898)  Unionidae...................  Rabbitsfoot, rough...............................  U.S.A. (KY, TN, VA).
PE.........  ............  R4........  Villosa perpurpurea (I. Lea,1861).................  Unionidae...................  Bean, Purple.....................................  U.S.A. (TN, VA).    
                                                                                                                                                                                                
                                       Snails............................................                                                                                                       
C..........  7...........  R3........  Antrobia culveri (Hubricht, 1971).................  Hydrobiidae.................  Cavesnail, Tumbling Creek........................  U.S.A. (MO).        
C..........  11..........  R2........  Assiminea pecos Taylor, 1987......................  Assimineidae................  Snail, Pecos assiminea...........................  U.S.A. (NM, TX),    
                                                                                                                                                                             Mexico.            
C..........  5...........  R4........  Elimia crenatella (I. Lea, 1860)..................  Pleuroceridae...............  Elimia (snail), lacy.............................  U.S.A. (AL).        
C..........  7...........  R1........  Erinna newcombi...................................  Lymnaeidae..................  Snail, Newcomb's.................................  U.S.A. (HI).        
C..........  2...........  R1........  Eua zebrina.......................................  Partulidae..................  Snail, Tutuila tree..............................  U.S.A. (AS).        
C..........  5...........  R4........  Leptoxis ampla (Anthony, 1855)....................  Pleuroceridae...............  Rocksnail, round.................................  U.S.A. (AL).        
C..........  5...........  R4........  Leptoxis plicata (Conrad, 1834)...................  Pleuroceridae...............  Rocksnail, plicate...............................  U.S.A. (AL).        
C..........  5...........  R4........  Leptoxis taeniata (Conrad, 1834)..................  Pleuroceridae...............  Rocksnail, painted...............................  U.S.A. (AL).        
C..........  5...........  R4........  Lepyrium showalteri (I. Lea, 1861)................  Hydrobiidae.................  Pebblesnail, flat................................  U.S.A. (AL).        
C..........  5...........  R4........  Lioplax cyclostomaformis (I. Lea, 1841)...........  Viviparidae.................  Lioplax (snail), cylindrical.....................  U.S.A. (AL, GA, LA).
C..........  9...........  R6........  Oreohelix peripherica wasatchensis................  Oreohelicidae...............  Mountainsnail, Ogden Rocky.......................  U.S.A. (UT).        
C..........  2...........  R1........  Ostodes strigatus.................................  Potaridae...................  Snail, (no common name)..........................  U.S.A. (AS).        
C..........  2...........  R1........  Partula gibba.....................................  Partulidae..................  Snail, Humped tree...............................  U.S.A. (GU).        
C..........  2...........  R1........  Partula langfordi.................................  Partulidae..................  Snail, Langford's tree...........................  U.S.A. (GU).        
C..........  2...........  R1........  Partula radiolata.................................  Partulidae..................  Snail, Guam tree.................................  U.S.A. (GU).        
C..........  8...........  R2........  Pyrgulopsis (=``Fontelicella'') chupadae            Hydrobiidae.................  Springsnail, Chupadera...........................  U.S.A. (NM).        
                                        (=chupaderae)  Taylor, 1987.                                                                                                                            
C..........  11..........  R2........  Pyrgulopsis (=``Fontelicella'') gilae Taylor, 1987  Hydrobiidae.................  Springsnail, Gila................................  U.S.A. (NM).        
C..........  2...........  R2........  Pyrgulopsis morrisoni Hershler, 1988..............  Hydrobiidae.................  Springsnail, Page................................  U.S.A. (AZ).        
C..........  11..........  R2........  Pyrgulopsis (=``Fontelicella'') roswellensis        Hydrobiidae.................  Springsnail, Roswell.............................  U.S.A. (NM).        
                                        Taylor, 1987.                                                                                                                                           
C..........  11..........  R2........  Pyrgulopsis (=``Fontelicella'') thermalis Taylor,   Hydrobiidae.................  Hotspring snail, New Mexico......................  U.S.A. (NM).        
                                        1987.                                                                                                                                                   
C..........  5...........  R2........  Pyrgulopsis thompsoni Hershler, 1988..............  Hydrobiidae.................  Springsnail, Huachuca............................  U.S.A. (AZ), Mexico.
C..........  2...........  R1........  Samoana fragilis..................................  Partulidae..................  Snail, fragile tree..............................  U.S.A. (GU).        
PE.........  ............  R2........  Sonorella eremita (Pilsbry & Ferris, 1915)........  Helminthoglyptida...........  Talussnail, San Xavier...........................  U.S.A. (AZ).        
C..........  5...........  R2........  Sonorella macrophallus Fairbanks & Reeder, 1980...  Helminthoglyptida...........  Talussnail, Wet Canyon...........................  U.S.A. (AZ).        
C..........  2...........  R6........  Stagnicola bonnevillensis (Call, 1884)............  Lymnaeidae..................  Pondsnail, fat-whorled...........................  U.S.A. (UT).        
C..........  5...........  R2........  Tryonia adamantina Taylor, 1987...................  Hydrobiidae.................  Springsnail, Diamond Y...........................  U.S.A. (TX).        
C..........  11..........  R2........  Tryonia kosteri Taylor, 1987......................  Hydrobiidae.................  Tryonia (springsnail), Koster's..................  U.S.A. (NM).        
C..........  5...........  R2........  Tryonia stocktonensis Taylor, 1987................  Hydrobiidae.................  Tryonia (springsnail), Gonzales Spring...........  U.S.A. (TX).        
                                                                                                                                                                                                
                                       Insects...........................................                                                                                                       
C..........  2...........  R1........  Megalagrion leptodemus............................  Coenagrionidae..............  Damselfly, leptodemas megalagrion................  U.S.A. (HI).        
C..........  2...........  R1........  Megalagrion nesiotes..............................  Coenagrionidae..............  Damselfly, nesiotes megalagrion..................  U.S.A. (HI).        
C..........  2...........  R1........  Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum............  Coenagrionidae..............  Damselfly, blackline megalagrion.................  U.S.A. (HI).        
Y..........  ............  R1........  Megalagrion nigrolineatum.........................  *** see ***.................  Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum...........  ....................
C..........  2...........  R1........  Megalagrion oceanicum.............................  Coenagrionidae..............  Damselfly, oceanic megalagrion...................  U.S.A. (HI).        
C..........  2...........  R1........  Megalagrion pacificum.............................  Coenagrionidae..............  Damselfly, Pacific megalagrion...................  U.S.A. (HI).        
C..........  8...........  R1........  Megalagrion xanthomelas...........................  Coenagrionidae..............  Damselfly, orangeblack megalagrion...............  U.S.A. (HI).        
PE.........  ............  R1........  Trimerotropis infantilis..........................  Acrididae...................  Grasshopper, Zayante band-winged.................  U.S.A. (CA).        
C..........  3...........  R6........  Cicindela limbata albissima.......................  Cicindelidae................  Beetle, Coral Pink Sand Dunes tiger..............  U.S.A. (UT).        
PE.........  ............  R2........  Heterelmis comalensis.............................  Elmidae.....................  Beetle, Comal Springs riffle.....................  U.S.A. (TX).        
PE.........  ............  R1........  Pleocoma conjugens conjugens......................  Scarabaeidae................  Beetle, Santa Cruz rain..........................  U.S.A. (CA).        
PE.........  ............  R1........  Polyphylla barbata................................  Scarabaeidae................  Beetle, Mount Hermon June........................  U.S.A. (CA).        
C..........  2...........  R5........  Pseudanophthalmus holsingeri......................  Carabidae...................  Beetle, Holsinger's cave.........................  U.S.A. (VA).        
PE.........  ............  R2........  Stygoparnus comalensis............................  Dryopidae...................  Comal Springs dryopid beetle.....................  U.S.A. (TX).        
C..........  8...........  R6........  Zaitzevia thermae.................................  Elmidae.....................  Beetle, warm spring zaitzevian riffle............  U.S.A. (MT).        
C..........  2...........  R1........  Drosophila aglaia.................................  Drosophilidae...............  Pomace fly (no common name)......................  U.S.A. (HI)         
C..........  2...........  R1........  Drosophila alsophila..............................  Drosophilidae...............  Pomace fly (no common name)......................  U.S.A. (HI)         
C..........  2...........  R1........  Drosophila attigua................................  Drosophilidae...............  Pomace fly (no common name)......................  U.S.A. (HI)         
C..........  2...........  R1........  Drosophila digressa...............................  Drosophilidae...............  Pomace fly (no common name)......................  U.S.A. (HI)         
C..........  2...........  R1........  Drosophila hemipeza...............................  Drosophilidae...............  Pomace fly (no common name)......................  U.S.A. (HI) C..........  2...........  R1........  Drosophila heteroneura............................  Drosophilidae...............  Pomace fly (no common name)......................  U.S.A. (HI)         
C..........  2...........  R1........  Drosophila montgomeryi............................  Drosophilidae...............  Pomace fly (no common name)......................  U.S.A. (HI)         
C..........  2...........  R1........  Drosophila mulli..................................  Drosophilidae...............  Pomace fly (no common name)......................  U.S.A. (HI)         
C..........  2...........  R1........  Drosophila musaphila..............................  Drosophilidae...............  Pomace fly (no common name)......................  U.S.A. (HI)         
C..........  2...........  R1........  Drosophila neoclavisetae..........................  Drosophilidae...............  Pomace fly (no common name)......................  U.S.A. (HI)         
C..........  2...........  R1........  Drosophila obatai.................................  Drosophilidae...............  Pomace fly (no common name)......................  U.S.A. (HI)         
C..........  2...........  R1........  Drosophila psilotarsalis..........................  Drosophilidae...............  Pomace fly (no common name)......................  U.S.A. (HI)         
C..........  2...........  R1........  Drosophila substenoptera..........................  Drosophilidae...............  Pomace fly (no common name)......................  U.S.A. (HI)         
C..........  2...........  R1........  Drosophila tarphytrichia..........................  Drosophilidae...............  Pomace fly (no common name)......................  U.S.A. (HI)         
C..........  2...........  R1........  Drosophila toxochaeta.............................  Drosophilidae...............  Pomace fly (no common name)......................  U.S.A. (HI)         
C..........  5...........  R1........  Phaeogramma sp....................................  Tephritidae.................  Fly, Po'olanui gall..............................  U.S.A. (Hl).        
PE.........  ............  R1........  Euphydryas editha quino (=E. e. wrighti)..........  Nymphalidae.................  Butterfly, Quino checkerspot.....................  U.S.A. (CA), Mexico.
C..........  2...........  R1........  Euploea eleutho...................................  Danaidae....................  Butterfly, Marianas euploea......................  U.S.A. (MP).        
C..........  3...........  R1........  Icaricia icarioides fenderi.......................  Lycaenidae..................  Butterfly, Fender's blue.........................  U.S.A. (OR).        
C..........  2...........  R1........  Manduca blackburni................................  Sphingidae..................  Moth, Blackburn's sphinx.........................  U.S.A. (HI).        
PE.........  ............  R1........  Pyrgus ruralis lagunae............................  Hesperiidae.................  Skipper, Laguna Mountains........................  U.S.A. (CA).        
PE.........  ............  R1........  Speyeria callippe callippe........................  Nymphalidae.................  Butterfly, Callippe silverspot...................  U.S.A. (CA).        
PE.........  ............  R1........  Speyeria zerene behrensii.........................  Nymphalidae.................  Butterfly, Behren's silverspot...................  U.S.A. (CA).        
                                                                                                                                                                                                
                                       Arachnids.........................................                                                                                                       
C..........  1...........  R1........  Adelocosa anops...................................  Lycosidae...................  Spider, Kauai cave wolf or pe'e pe'e maka 'ole...  U.S.A. (HI).        
C..........  2...........  R2........  Cicurina wartoni..................................  Dictynidae..................  Spider, Warton's cave............................  U.S.A. (TX).        
                                                                                                                                                                                                
                                       Crustaceans.......................................                                                                                                       
PE.........  ............  R1........  Branchinecta sandiegoensis........................  Branchinectidae.............  Fairy shrimp, San Diego..........................  U.S.A. (CA).        
C..........  2...........  R3........  Gammarus acherondytes.............................  Gammaridae..................  Amphipod, Illinois cave..........................  U.S.A. (IL).        
C..........  1...........  R1........  Spelaeorchestia koloana...........................  Talitridae..................  Amphipod, Kauai cave.............................  U.S.A. (HI).        
PE.........  ............  R2........  Stygobromus (=Stygonectes) pecki .................  Crangonyctidae..............  Peck's cave amphipod.............................  U.S.A. (TX).        
                                                                                                                                                                                                
                                       Flowering Plants..................................                                                                                                       
Y..........  ............  R5........  Abama americanum..................................  *** see ***.................  Narthecium americanum............................  ....................
Y..........  ............  R5........  Abama montana.....................................  *** see ***.................  Narthecium americanum............................  ....................
C..........  8...........  R1........  Abronia alpina....................................  Nyctaginaceae...............  Ramshaw sand-verbena.............................  U.S.A. (CA).        
PE.........  ............  R1........  Acanthomintha ilicifolia..........................  Lamiaceae...................  San Diego thornmint..............................  U.S.A. (CA), Mexico 
                                                                                                                                                                             (Baja California). 
PE.........  ............  R1........  Achyranthes mutica................................  Amaranthaceae...............  None.............................................  U.S.A. (HI)         
Y..........  ............  R1........  Achyranthes nelsonii..............................  *** see ***.................  Ach  

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