Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

Summary:

The Fish and Wildlife Service (Service or we) prescribes final late-season frameworks from which States may select season dates, limits, and other options for the 2010-11 migratory bird hunting seasons. These late seasons include most waterfowl seasons, the earliest of which commences on September 25, 2010. The effect of this final rule is to facilitate the States' selection of hunting seasons and to further the annual establishment of the late-season migratory bird hunting regulations.

Table of Contents

Dates:

This rule takes effect on September 23, 2010.

Addresses:

States should send their season selections to: Chief, Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, ms MBSP-4107-ARLSQ, 1849 C Street, NW., Washington, DC 20240. You may inspect comments received on the migratory bird hunting regulations during normal business hours at the Service's office in room 4107, Arlington Square Building, 4501 N. Fairfax Drive, Arlington, VA. You may obtain copies of referenced reports from the street address above, or from the Division of Migratory Bird Management's Web site at http://www.fws.gov/migratorybirds/, or at http://www.regulations.gov at Docket No. FWS-R9-MB-2010-0040.

For further information contact:

Robert Blohm, Chief, or Ron W. Kokel, Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, (703) 358-1714.

Supplementary information:

Regulations Schedule for 2010

On May 13, 2010, we published in the Federal Register(75 FR 27144) a proposal to amend 50 CFR part 20. The proposal provided a background and overview of the migratory bird hunting regulations process, and addressed the establishment of seasons, limits, and other regulations for hunting migratory game birds under §§ 20.101 through 20.107, 20.109, and 20.110 of subpart K. Major steps in the 2010-11 regulatory cycle relating to open public meetings and Federal Register notifications were also identified in the May 13 proposed rule. Further, we explained that all sections of subsequent documents outlining hunting frameworks and guidelines were organized under numbered headings.

On June 10, 2010, we published in the Federal Register(75 FR 32872) a second document providing supplemental proposals for early- and late-season migratory bird hunting regulations. The June 10 supplement also provided detailed information on the 2010-11 regulatory schedule and announced the Service Migratory Bird Regulations Committee (SRC) and Flyway Council meetings.

On June 23 and 24, 2010, we held open meetings with the Flyway Council Consultants at which the participants reviewed information on the current status of migratory shore and upland game birds and developed recommendations for the 2010-11 regulations for these species plus regulations for migratory game birds in Alaska, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands; special September waterfowl seasons in designated States; special sea duck seasons in the Atlantic Flyway; and extended falconry seasons. In addition, we reviewed and discussed preliminary information on the status of waterfowl as it relates to the development and selection of the regulatory packages for the 2010-11 regular waterfowl seasons. On July 29, 2010, we published in the Federal Register(75 FR 44856) a third document specifically dealing with the proposed frameworks for early-season regulations. On August 30, 2010, we published in the Federal Register(75 FR 52873) a final rule which contained final frameworks for early migratory bird hunting seasons from which wildlife conservation agency officials from the States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands selected early-season hunting dates, hours, areas, and limits. Subsequently, on August 31, 2010, we published a final rule in the Federal Register(75 FR 53226) amending subpart K of title 50 CFR part 20 to set hunting seasons, hours, areas, and limits for early seasons.

On July 28-29, 2010, we held open meetings with the Flyway Council Consultants at which the participants reviewed the status of waterfowl and developed recommendations for the 2010-11 regulations for these species. Proposed hunting regulations were discussed for late seasons. On August 25, 2010, we published in the Federal Register(75 FR 52398) the proposed frameworks for the 2010-11 late-season migratory bird hunting regulations. This document establishes final frameworks for late-season migratory bird hunting regulations for the 2010-11 season. There are no substantive changes from the August 25 proposed rule. We will publish State selections in the Federal Register as amendments to §§ 20.101 through 20.107, and 20.109 of title 50 CFR part 20.

Population Status and Harvest

A brief summary of information on the status and harvest of waterfowl excerpted from various reports was included in the August 25 supplemental proposed rule. For more detailed information on methodologies and results, complete copies of the various reports are available at the street address indicated under ADDRESSES or from our Web site at http://www.fws.gov/migratorybirds/NewsPublicationsReports.html.

Review of Public Comments and Flyway Council Recommendations

The preliminary proposed rulemaking, which appeared in the May 13, 2010, Federal Register, opened the public comment period for migratory game bird hunting regulations. The supplemental proposed rule, which appeared in the June 10, 2010, Federal Register, discussed the regulatory alternatives for the 2010-11 duck hunting season. Late-season comments are summarized below and numbered in the order used in the May 13 and June 10Federal Register documents. We have included only the numbered items pertaining to late-season issues for which we received written comments. Consequently, the issues do not follow in successive numerical or alphabetical order.

We received recommendations from all four Flyway Councils. Some recommendations supported continuation of last year's frameworks. Due to the comprehensive nature of the annual review of the frameworks performed by the Councils, support for continuation of last year's frameworks is assumed for items for which no recommendations were received. Council recommendations for changes in the frameworks are summarized below. Wherever possible, they are discussed under headings corresponding to the numbered items in the May 13 and June 10, 2010, Federal Register documents.

General

Council Recommendations: The Central Flyway Council recommended increasing the possession limit for all migratory birds from twice the daily bag limit to three times the daily bag limit for the 2011-12 hunting seasons.

The Pacific Flyway Council recommended increasing the possession limit for ducks and geese from twice the daily bag limit to three times the daily bag limit, beginning with the 2010-11 season.

Written Comments: The Animal Legal Defense Fund (ALDF) urged us to reduce bag limits and institute a hunting moratorium for those species potentially affected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

An individual questioned the annual variation we see in the population status of various species and requested that we keep all daily bag limits unchanged until several years of trends are evident.

Service Response: We are generally supportive of the Flyways' interest in increasing the possession limits for migratory game birds and appreciate the recent discussions to frame this important issue. However, we believe that there are many unanswered questions regarding how this interest can be fully articulated in a proposal that satisfies the harvest management community, while fostering the support of the law enforcement community and informing the general hunting public. Further, because of the current schedule and processes for establishing migratory bird hunting seasons (i.e., early and late season processes), any changes to current possession limits would not be available for the 2010-11 seasons. Consequently, we are proposing the creation of a cross-agency working group, chaired by the Service, and comprised of staff from the Service's Migratory Bird Program, State Wildlife Agency representatives, and Federal and State law enforcement staff, to begin to frame a recommendation that fully articulates a potential change in possession limits. This effort would include a description of the current status and use of possession limits, which populations and/or species/species groups should not be included in any proposed modification of possession limits, potential law enforcement issues, and a reasonable timeline for the implementation of any such proposed changes. Results of the working group efforts would be reported at the January SRC meeting in 2011, and then forwarded to Flyway Technical Committee and Council meetings next winter for further review and refinement. We would present any resulting proposal next spring, with possible implementation during the 2011-12 hunting seasons.

Regarding the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, as we stated in the August 30, 2010Federal Register(75 FR 52873) and reiterate here, the release of oil into the Gulf of Mexico following the explosion and sinking of the Deepwater Horizon mobile offshore drilling unit and impacts to Gulf wetlands and wildlife has led to concerns about the potential for increased mortality in waterfowl and other migratory game birds, particularly in the fall and winter when local populations increase. This potential for increased mortality of migrating and wintering game birds has led to further questions regarding the need to impose precautionary regulatory restrictions in anticipation of increased spill-related mortality. However, it is important to remember that waterfowl migration and habitat use are highly variable from year to year, not only at the Flyway level but at regional and local levels, and dependent on any number of environmental factors. It is also important to recognize that populations of many species of North American waterfowl naturally undergo large population fluctuations in response to variability in breeding habitat conditions across their range, especially within the important prairie-parkland region. In fact, during the drought-stricken years of the 1980s and early 1990s, many North American waterfowl species declined to population sizes less than one-half those recently experienced as a result of natural declines in productivity and ongoing mortality. Fortunately, waterfowl management has a rich and successful history of monitoring and assessment programs which provide annual updates on the status and health of waterfowl populations. Programs such as the May aerial breeding population survey, the continental bird banding program, the mid-winter waterfowl surveys, and the hunter harvest surveys, among others, all provide important pieces of information on the population status, productivity, and distribution of important waterfowl species. These data are integral in the process of establishing hunting regulations for waterfowl and other migratory game birds. Through the Adaptive Harvest Management process we currently utilize to establish waterfowl seasons, and other associated species-specific harvest strategies, monitoring and assessment data are explicitly linked to regulatory decision making, ensuring that appropriate regulatory actions will be taken if warranted by changes in continental population status. Therefore, from both a National and Flyway harvest-management perspective, we intend to respond to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill as we would any other non-hunting factor with potentially substantial effects on mortality or reproduction (e.g., hurricane, disease, prairie drought, habitat loss), by monitoring abundance and vital rates of waterfowl and other migratory game birds and adjusting harvest regulations as needed on the basis of existing harvest strategies. We believe this is the most prudent course of action, and further, firmly believe that our existing monitoring and assessment programs are sufficient to help safeguard the long-term conservation of any potentially-affected waterfowl or other migratory game birds.

Recently obtained results of annual spring waterfowl population surveys indicate that population sizes of most duck species and breeding habitat conditions are good this year. While we believe that regulatory restrictions are currently unnecessary, we remain very concerned about both the short and long-term impacts of the oil spill on migratory birds, their habitats, and the resources upon which birds depend. There remains considerable uncertainty regarding the short-term and long-term impacts this spill will have on waterfowl and other migratory game birds that utilize the impacted region during all or part of their annual life cycle. We have been heavily engaged in the immediate response to the BP oil spill. The intent of these efforts is to document and minimize impacts to natural resources including migratory birds and their habitats. Large-scale efforts to influence bird migration and distribution at the flyway-level are likely fruitless given the importance of weather and photoperiod on the timing and speed of bird migrations. It is possible that re-distribution of birds at smaller scales could help reduce some oil exposure. Working with conservation partners, we are preparing to implement a range of on-the-ground habitat conservation or management measures near the oil-impact area intended to minimize the entrance of oil into managed habitats along the Gulf and to enhance the availability of food resources outside the oil impact area. The provision of additional, reliable food sources could also help buffer against the worst-case scenario of an early winter in northern portions of the Mississippi and Central Flyways and dry habitat conditions in the northern Mississippi Alluvial Valley that wouldresult in large wintering waterfowl populations along the Gulf Coast. We are working with partners to determine what portion of these projects should be available as “sanctuary” (areas closed to hunting) to encourage bird use of these areas and minimize redistribution due to disturbance.

Simultaneous with immediate response efforts, we are also working with partners to assess potential pathways for long-term acute and sub-lethal effects of the BP oil spill on the full suite of migratory birds utilizing Gulf (or other impacted) habitats during some portion of their life cycle. Effects may result from direct exposure of birds to oil or to the long-term accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or other toxins at levels sufficient to cause physiological disorders impacting productivity or survival. The intent of this assessment is to assist in identifying potential mitigation and conservation measures as well as long-term monitoring and assessment needs for migratory birds.

Regardless of the eventual impact of the BP oil spill on migratory game birds, we recognize the importance of working with the States as well as other governmental and non-governmental conservation partners to ensure that reasonable and science-based measures are implemented in the face of the ongoing crisis in the Gulf, and that the rationale for decisions regarding harvest regulations or other actions are clearly communicated to the public. We will continue to do so.

Regarding the annual variation we see in species' population status, our long-term objectives continue to include providing opportunities to harvest portions of certain migratory game bird populations and to limit harvests to levels compatible with each population's ability to maintain healthy, viable numbers. Having taken into account the zones of temperature and the distribution, abundance, economic value, breeding habits, and times and lines of flight of migratory birds, we believe that the hunting seasons provided herein are compatible with the current status of migratory bird populations and long-term population goals.

1. Ducks

Categories used to discuss issues related to duck harvest management are: (A) Harvest Strategy Considerations, (B) Regulatory Alternatives, (C) Zones and Split Seasons, and (D) Special Seasons/Species Management. The categories correspond to previously published issues/discussion, and only those containing substantial recommendations are discussed below.

A. Harvest Strategy Considerations

Council Recommendations: The Atlantic, Central, and Pacific Flyway Councils and the Upper- and Lower-Region Regulations Committees of the Mississippi Flyway Council recommended the adoption of the “liberal” regulatory alternative.

Service Response: We are continuing development of an Adaptive Harvest Management (AHM) protocol that would allow hunting regulations to vary among Flyways in a manner that recognizes each Flyway's unique breeding-ground derivation of mallards. In 2008, we described and adopted a protocol for regulatory decision-making for the newly defined stock of western mallards (73 FR 43290). For the 2010 hunting season, we continue to believe that the prescribed regulatory choice for the Pacific Flyway should be based on the status of this western mallard breeding stock, while the regulatory choice for the Mississippi and Central Flyways should depend on the status of the recently redefined mid-continent mallard stock. We also recommend that the regulatory choice for the Atlantic Flyway continues to depend on the status of eastern mallards.

For the 2010 hunting season, we are continuing to consider the same regulatory alternatives as those used last year. The nature of the “restrictive,” “moderate,” and “liberal” alternatives has remained essentially unchanged since 1997, except that extended framework dates have been offered in the “moderate” and “liberal” regulatory alternatives since 2002. Also, in 2003, we agreed to place a constraint on closed seasons in the western three Flyways whenever the midcontinent mallard breeding-population size (as defined prior to 2008; traditional survey area plus Minnesota, Michigan, and Wisconsin) was ≥5.5 million.

Optimal AHM strategies for the 2010-11 hunting season were calculated using: (1) Harvest-management objectives specific to each mallard stock; (2) the 2010 regulatory alternatives; and (3) current population models and associated weights for midcontinent, western, and eastern mallards. Based on this year's survey results of 8.60 million midcontinent mallards (traditional survey area minus Alaska plus Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan), 3.73 million ponds in Prairie Canada, 1,049,000 western mallards (443,000 and 606,000 respectively in California-Oregon and Alaska), and 763,000 eastern mallards, the prescribed regulatory choice for all four Flyways is the “liberal” alternative.

Therefore, we concur with the recommendations of the Atlantic, Mississippi, Central, and Pacific Flyway Councils regarding selection of the “liberal” regulatory alternative and adopt the “liberal” regulatory alternative, as described in the July 29, 2010, Federal Register.

C. Zones and Split Seasons

Council Recommendations: The Atlantic, Central, and Pacific Flyway Councils recommended that the Service allow 3 zones, with 2-way splits in each zone, and 4 zones with no splits as additional zone/split-season options for duck seasons during 2011-15.

The Upper- and Lower-Region Regulations Committees of the Mississippi Flyway Council recommended that the Service allow 3 zones with the season split into 2 segments in each zone, 4 zones with no splits, and 2 zones with the season split into 3 segments in each zone as additional zone/split-season options for duck seasons during 2011-15.

In addition, all four Flyway Councils recommended that States with existing grandfathered status be allowed to retain that status.

Service Response: In 1990, because of concerns about the proliferation of zones and split seasons for duck hunting, we conducted a cooperative review and evaluation of the historical use of zone/split options. This review did not show that the proliferation of these options had increased harvest pressure; however, the ability to detect the impact of zone/split configurations was poor because of unreliable response variables, the lack of statistical tests to differentiate between real and perceived changes, and the absence of adequate experimental controls. Consequently, we established guidelines to provide a framework for controlling the proliferation of changes in zone/split options. The guidelines identified a limited number of zone/split configurations that could be used for duck hunting and restricted the frequency of changes in these configurations to 5-year intervals.

In 1996, we revised the guidelines to provide States greater flexibility in using their zone/split arrangements. In 2005, in further response to recommendations from the Flyway Councils, we considered changes to the zone/split guidelines. After our review, however, we concluded that the current guidelines need not be changed. We further stated that the guidelines would be used for future open seasons (70 FR 55667).

However, while we continue to support the use of guidelines for providing a stable framework for controlling the number of changes to zone/split options, we note the consensus position among all the Flyway Councils on their proposal and are sensitive to the States' desires for flexibility in addressing concerns of the hunting public which, in part, provided the motivation for this recommendation. Furthermore, we remain supportive of the recommendations from the 2008 Future of Waterfowl Management Workshop that called for a greater emphasis on the effects of management actions on the hunting public. Thus, later this fall in a subsequent Federal Register, we plan to propose that two specific additional options be added to the existing zone and split season criteria governing State selection of waterfowl zones and splits. The additional options would include four zones with no splits and three zones with the option for 2-way (2-segment) split seasons in one or both zones. Otherwise, the criteria and rules governing the application of those criteria would remain unchanged.

While we are announcing our intention to propose adding the Flyway Councils' recommended two options to the existing zone and split season guidelines, we are not providing all the specifics of our proposal here for several reasons. First, because of the sensitive timing of the annual regulations process, and the necessary abbreviated public comment periods, we want to allow sufficient time for the Flyway Councils, the States, and the public to review and comment on our proposal. Second, because any new zone and split season criteria would not be used until the 2011-12 hunting season, we believe there is no pressing reason to finalize them in the next several months. However, we are also sensitive to providing the States sufficient time to interact with their affected hunting publics on any possible changes to existing zone and split season configurations they may wish to explore and to conduct any public processes needed to implement such changes. Finally, we need additional time to explore all the possible implications and impacts of such changes in the zone and split season guidelines in order to provide the public with all the necessary information for their consideration and comment.

We also note that existing human dimensions data on the relationship of harvest regulations, specifically zones and splits, to hunter recruitment, retention, and/or satisfaction are equivocal or lacking. In the face of uncertainty over the effects of management actions, the waterfowl management community has broadly endorsed adaptive management and the principles of informed decision-making as a means of accounting for and reducing that uncertainty. The necessary elements of informed decision-making include: Clearly articulated objectives, explicit measurable attributes for objectives, identification of a suite of potential management actions, some means of predicting the consequences of management actions with respect to stated objectives, and, finally, a monitoring program to compare observations with predictions as a basis for learning, policy adaptation, and more informed decision-making. Currently, none of these elements are used to support decision-making that involves human dimensions considerations. Accordingly, we see this as an opportunity to advance an informed decision-making framework that explicitly considers human dimensions issues.

To that end, we will request that the National Flyway Council marshal the expertise and resources of the Human Dimensions Working Group to develop explicit human dimensions objectives related to expanding zone and split options and a study plan to evaluate the effect of the proposed action in achieving those objectives. It is our hope that the study plan would include hypotheses and specific predictions about the effect of changing zone/split criteria on stated human dimensions objectives, and monitoring and evaluation methods that would be used to test those predictions.

We believe that insights gained through such an evaluation would be invaluable in furthering the ongoing dialogue regarding fundamental objectives of waterfowl management and an integrated and coherent decision framework for advancing those objectives. We will review the objectives and study plan at our January 2011 SRC meeting. We will consider this plan, along with public and Flyway comments on the proposed change to the zones and splits criteria, along with any required National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA; 42 U.S.C. 4321et seq.) analysis, in making a final decision on a course of action next year. We anticipate our final decision sometime this winter.

D. Special Seasons/Species Management

iii. Black Ducks

In 2008, U.S. and Canadian waterfowl managers developed an interim harvest strategy that will be employed by both countries until a formal strategy based on the principles of AHM is completed. We detailed this interim strategy in the July 24, 2008, Federal Register(73 FR 43290). The interim harvest strategy is prescriptive, in that it calls for no substantive changes in hunting regulations unless the black duck breeding population, averaged over the most recent 3 years, exceeds or falls below the long-term average breeding population by 15 percent or more. The strategy is designed to share the black duck harvest equally between the two countries; however, recognizing incomplete control of harvest through regulations, it will allow realized harvest in either country to vary between 40 and 60 percent.

Each year in November, Canada publishes its proposed migratory bird hunting regulations for the upcoming hunting season. Thus, last fall the Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS) used the interim strategy to establish its proposed black duck regulations for the 2010-11 season, based on the most current data available at that time: Breeding population estimates for 2007, 2008, and 2009, and an assessment of parity based on harvest estimates for the 2004-08 hunting seasons. Although updates of both breeding population estimates and harvest estimates are now available, the United States will base its 2010-11 black duck regulations on the same data CWS used, to ensure comparable application of the strategy. The long-term (1998-2007) breeding population mean estimate is 717,450 and the 2007-09 3-year running mean estimate is 719,133. Based on these estimates, no restriction or liberalization of black duck harvest is warranted. The average proportion of the harvest during the 5-year period, 2004-08, was 0.56 in the United States and 0.44 in Canada, and this falls within the established parity bounds of 40 and 60 percent.

iv. Canvasbacks

Council Recommendations: The Atlantic, Central, and Pacific Flyway Councils and the Upper- and Lower-Region Regulations Committees of the Mississippi Flyway Council recommended a full season for canvasbacks with a 1-bird daily bag limit. Season lengths would be 60 days in the Atlantic and Mississippi Flyways, 74 days in the Central Flyway, and 107 days in the Pacific Flyway.

The Upper- and Lower-Region Regulations Committees of the Mississippi Flyway Council also recommended that we update the harvest estimates used to predict the canvasback harvest under the “liberal”AHM regulatory alternative, as used in the existing canvasback harvest strategy, and utilize the most recent 5-year average U.S. canvasback harvest plus a constant accounting for the most recent available Canadian harvest estimates. They further recommended that our updates include canvasback harvest estimates for both full (1-bird bag limit) and partial seasons.

Service Response: Since 1994, we have followed a canvasback harvest strategy that if canvasback population status and production are sufficient to permit a harvest of one canvasback per day nationwide for the entire length of the regular duck season, while still attaining a projected spring population objective of 500,000 birds, the season on canvasbacks should be opened. A partial season would be permitted if the estimated allowable harvest was within the projected harvest for a shortened season. If neither of these conditions can be met, the harvest strategy calls for a closed season on canvasbacks nationwide. In 2008 (73 FR 43290), we announced our decision to modify the Canvasback Harvest Strategy to incorporate the option for a 2-bird daily bag limit for canvasbacks when the predicted breeding population the subsequent year exceeds 725,000 birds.

This year's spring survey resulted in an estimate of 585,000 canvasbacks. This was 12 percent below the 2009 estimate of 662,000 canvasbacks and 3 percent above the 1955-2009 average. The estimate of ponds in Prairie Canada was 3.7 million, which was 5 percent above last year and 9 percent above the long-term average. The canvasback harvest strategy predicts a 2011 canvasback population of 521,000 birds under a “liberal” duck season with a 1-bird daily bag limit and 485,000 with a 2-bird daily bag limit. Because the predicted 2011 population under the 1-bird daily bag limit is greater than 500,000, while the prediction under the 2-bird daily bag limit is less than 725,000, the canvasback harvest strategy stipulates a full canvasback season with a 1-bird daily bag limit for the upcoming season.

With regard to the Mississippi Flyway Council's request to update estimates used to predict canvasback harvest in the Service's harvest strategy, we agree that this feature of the canvasback strategy should be updated. Canvasback harvest estimates from recent hunting seasons are now available to be used in an update of the strategy. We hope to complete the update of the canvasback strategy in time for use in the 2011-12 hunting season, and will provide an update on this work at the next SRC meeting in January.

v. Pintails

Council Recommendations: The Atlantic, Central, and Pacific Flyway Councils and the Upper- and Lower-Region Regulations Committees of the Mississippi Flyway Council recommended a full season for pintails, consisting of a 2-bird daily bag limit with a 60-day season in the Atlantic and Mississippi Flyways, a 74-day season in the Central Flyway, and a 107-day season in the Pacific Flyway.

Service Response: The current derived pintail harvest strategy was adopted by the Service and Flyway Councils in 2010 (75 FR 44856). For this year, optimal regulatory strategies were calculated with: (1) An objective of maximizing long-term cumulative harvest, including a closed-season constraint of 1.75 million birds, (2) the regulatory alternatives and associated predicted harvest, and (3) current population models and their relative weights. Based on this year's survey results of 3.5 million pintails and a mean latitude of 54.4 degrees (latitude corrected breeding population of 4.30 million pintails), the optimal regulatory choice for all four Flyways is the “liberal” alternative with a 2-bird daily bag limit.

vi. Scaup

Council Recommendations: The Atlantic, Central, and Pacific Flyway Councils and the Upper- and Lower-Region Regulations Committees of the Mississippi Flyway Council recommended use of the “moderate” regulation package, consisting of a 60-day season with a 2-bird daily bag in the Atlantic and Mississippi Flyways, a 74-day season with a 2-bird daily bag limit in the Central Flyway, and an 86-day season with a 3-bird daily bag limit in the Pacific Flyway.

Service Response: In 2008, we adopted and implemented a new scaup harvest strategy (73 FR 43290 and 73 FR 51124) with initial “restrictive,” “moderate,” and “liberal” regulatory packages adopted for each Flyway. Further opportunity to revise these packages was afforded prior to the 2009-10 season and modifications by the Mississippi and Central Flyway Councils were endorsed by the Service in July 2009 (74 FR 36870). These packages will remain in effect for at least 3 years prior to their re-evaluation.

The 2010 breeding population estimate for scaup is 4.24 million, up 2 percent from, but similar to, the 2009 estimate of 4.17 million. Total estimated scaup harvest for the 2009-10 season was 277,000 birds. Based on updated model parameter estimates, the optimal regulatory choice for scaup is the “moderate” package recommended by the Councils in all four Flyways.

vii. Mottled Ducks

Written Comments: The ALDF stated that the combination of liberal bag limits, documented low survivorship, low reproductive rates, ongoing habitat loss, and observed population declines indicate that hunting for mottled ducks at current levels is probably not sustainable, especially considering the impacts of habitat destruction and direct mortality from exposure to oil from the Deepwater Horizon blowout. They urged us not to allow any harvest of mottled ducks until the short-term and long-term impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill are determined.

Service Response: For many years, we have expressed concern about the long-term status of mottled ducks, especially the Western Gulf Coast Population. Last year, after consideration of long-term trends for this population, recent harvest levels, and breeding habitat conditions, we believed that a reduction in harvest levels for this population was necessary (September 24, 2009Federal Register, 74 FR 48822). Thus, in the Mississippi Flyway, we reduced the daily bag limit of mottled ducks to one bird (projected to result in a harvest reduction of about 20 percent) and in the Central Flyway delayed the opening of the mottled duck season (expected to result in a similar harvest reduction). We stated then that we believe that this level of reduction was necessary across the entire range of the Western Gulf Coast Population. Further, we stated that an assessment should be conducted of whether desired reductions in harvest are achieved as a result of the harvest restrictions, and that the status of mottled ducks and their breeding habitat should be closely monitored and a determination made whether further restrictions are warranted. Should additional restrictions be needed, we will consider all regulatory options, including the potential for a closed season. We see no reason to deviate from this course of action.

4. Canada Geese

B. Regular Seasons

Council Recommendations: The Atlantic Flyway Council recommended a 107-day regular Canada goose hunting season, between the Saturday nearest September 24 and March 10, with a daily bag limit of 8 geese, in the Western Long Island Resident Population (RP) area of New York. The season could be split into three segments. The Council recommends this framework in lieu ofthe current 30-day September season and 80-day regular season (between October 1 and February 15) offered for that area.

The Upper- and Lower-Region Regulations Committees of the Mississippi Flyway Council recommended several changes in goose frameworks. In Minnesota and Missouri, the Committees recommended an 85-day Canada goose season with a daily bag limit of 3 geese. In Iowa, they recommend a 107-day Canada goose season with a daily bag limit of 3 geese. In Arkansas, they recommended an 82-day Canada goose season in the Northwest Zone, and a 72-day season in the remainder of the State. The daily bag limit would be 2 Canada geese. All the recommended changes in Canada goose season lengths and bag limits, except in Arkansas, were made in response to changes in the Eastern Prairie Population (EPP) harvest strategy, which the Council approved this summer.

The Central Flyway Council recommended two changes to Canada goose frameworks. In the east-tier States, the Council recommended increasing the Canada goose daily bag limit from 3 to 5 geese. In the west-tier States of Colorado and Texas, the Council recommended raising the dark goose daily bag limit from 4 to 5 geese in the aggregate, with the exception of the Western Goose Zone of Texas, where no more than 1 could be a white-fronted goose (no change).

The Pacific Flyway Council recommended several changes to dark goose season frameworks. In Oregon's Northwest (NW) Permit Goose Zone, the Council recommended extending the framework ending date for dark geese from the Sunday nearest March 1 to March 10. In the Tillamook County Management Area of Oregon's NW Permit Goose Zone, they recommended increasing the dark goose daily bag limit from 2 to 3, with not more than 2 cackling or Aleutian geese per day. In California's Balance-of-State Zone, they recommended increasing the dark goose season framework from 100 to 107 days.

Service Response: We support the Atlantic Flyway's recommendation regarding season framework changes to the Western Long Island RP area of New York. We recognize that resident Canada geese are causing serious conflicts with human interests and activities in western Long Island, including threats to public health and safety (including airport safety) and property damage concerns. Currently, the State of New York (New York) employs a variety of control methods in this area, but resident Canada geese numbers remain abundant in that area. Further, the Council notes that negligible harvest of geese has occurred during September seasons in western Long Island, primarily due to most of the birds remaining in areas where hunting is not allowed or not feasible, and hunters wanting to avoid conflicts with other outdoor activities at that time of year. However, New York believes, and we agree, that opportunities and interest in hunting for resident geese in this area are greatest in mid to late winter, when geese are most likely to be forced out of inland ponds and lakes to more hunter-accessible coastal areas, and potential conflicts with other outdoor activities would be lowest. Hunting and harvest of RP geese in late winter would help provide some relief and control of geese that are most likely to nest and contribute to local population problems and conflicts. Since this area is already classified as an RP area, we believe that the potential harvest of Atlantic Population (AP) or North Atlantic Population (NAP) geese would be negligible.

In the Mississippi Flyway, we support the recommended changes to season frameworks in Minnesota, Missouri, Iowa, and Arkansas. The changes in Canada goose season lengths and bag limits, except in Arkansas, were made in response to changes in the EPP harvest strategy recently approved by the Council.

Regarding the Central Flyway Council's recommendation to increase the dark goose daily bag limit in the west-tier States of Colorado and Texas from 4 to 5 geese, we concur. Currently, all other west-tier States have a 5 dark goose daily bag limit and the Council's proposed modification is in the relevant goose management plans. Further, the 2008-10 averages of midwinter counts for Hi-Line Population Canada geese (244,107) and Short Grass Prairie Population (SGP) Canada geese (241,132), found mainly in the west tier, remain well above population objective levels (>80,000 and 150,000-200,000, respectively).

However, we do not support the Central Flyway's request to increase the dark goose daily bag limit in the east-tier States from 3 to 5 geese. While we agree that the Flyway's proposed bag limit increase would likely result in an increased harvest of resident Canada geese (Great Plains Population), there are other Canada goose populations that would also be subjected to additional harvest pressure, including the Tall Grass Prairie (TGP), Western Prairie (WP), and EPP populations. One of our primary concerns with the proposed increase relates to our current collective inability to adequately monitor the population status and harvest of all these various populations. We currently have no surveys that provide reliable estimates of population abundance for Great Plains resident geese in Kansas, Nebraska, Oklahoma, or Texas. Population abundance indices for the TGP (Richardson's Canada geese) are based on midwinter surveys that include unknown proportions of other Canada goose populations and yield highly variable estimates. Additionally, there is little information available about the abundance or harvest of WP geese. Without having this important information, we cannot reliably determine appropriate harvest levels or harvest regulations for the resident Canada goose population and meet management objectives for all the populations likely affected by the proposal. Furthermore, this liberalization would result in markedly disparate harvest regulations between the Central and Mississippi Flyways, which share the TGP and EPP populations. We believe that more coordination with the Mississippi Flyway, which shares the TGP with the Central Flyway, should be pursued prior to the proposed regulatory change. This coordination should include work toward a revision of the management plan for the TGP population, and improved abundance and harvest monitoring for all populations of Canada geese that would be impacted by this proposal.

Lastly, we encourage the States in the Central Flyway to fully utilize available tools provided to manage resident Canada geese, including special Canada goose hunting seasons, take of geese in August using management take, other control and depredation orders specifically relevant to resident Canada geese, and Statewide special Canada goose permits, to reduce the growth of resident Canada goose populations.

We do agree with the Pacific Flyway Council's recommendation to extend the framework closing date in Oregon's NW Permit Goose Zone to March 10. This change would allow Oregon's NW Permit Goose season to close 7-14 days later than currently allowed and is intended to help alleviate agricultural depredations caused by wintering geese in this area during this slightly later period when the Council believes that grazing by geese may be especially detrimental to crops. The Council does not expect the change to measurably increase harvest since goose harvest per week, as measured at the mandatory check stations in this zone, remains relatively constant during the season. We agree.

Similarly, we also agree with the Council's recommendation to increase the dark goose daily bag limit in the Tillamook County Management Area of Oregon's NW Permit Goose Zone from 2 to 3, with not more than 2 cackling or Aleutian Canada geese per day. This change is expected to have only a negligible impact on the harvest level of migrant Canada geese and an even smaller effect on the harvest of cackling and Aleutian Canada geese since it maintains the current NW Permit Zone restriction regarding cackling and Aleutian Canada geese. Harvest data collected during the first 3 seasons in which goose hunting was allowed in Tillamook County since 1982 indicates that the overall goose harvest has remained moderate, with 238, 297, and 285 geese taken during the last three seasons, respectively. The vast majority of these birds have been classified as either western Canada geese (52 percent) or lesser Canada geese (25 percent). It is the Council's and our belief that agricultural depredations in this area will likely be reduced due to the direct removal of some additional geese and the increased hazing effect of additional hunting.

Lastly, we agree with the minor increase in the dark season framework in California's Balance-of-State Zone, from 100 to 107 days. While most of California's Balance-of-State Zone is outside the historic nesting range of Canada geese, Canada goose breeding populations there have grown significantly in the last 20 years, causing increasing conflicts with humans. Since 1984, daily bag limits for large Canada geese have increased from 2 to 6, and season lengths have increased from 79 days to 100 days. The Council states that increasing the framework season length in this zone will allow for California to use up to 5 days in an early October Canada goose season—an option preferred over a September season because of typically hot September weather in the Central Valley.

C. Special Late Seasons

Council Recommendations: The Upper- and Lower-Region Regulations Committees of the Mississippi Flyway Council recommended changing Indiana's experimental late Canada goose season (February 1-15) from experimental to operational in the following 30 counties: Adams, Allen, Boone, Clay, De Kalb, Elkhart, Greene, Hamilton, Hancock, Hendricks, Huntington, Johnson, Kosciusko, La Porte, Lagrange, Madison, Marion, Marshall, Morgan, Noble, Parke, St. Joseph, Shelby, Steuben, Starke, Sullivan, Vermillion, Vigo, Wells, and Whitley.

Service Response: In large part, we concur with the Mississippi Flyway Council's recommendation to grant operational status for Indiana's late Canada goose season. However, results from the experiment indicate that the percentage of migrant geese harvested in the 6-county region surrounding Terre Haute exceeds the 20 percent threshold identified in the criteria for special late Canada goose seasons. When we developed the criteria for special late Canada goose seasons, we indicated that States must agree to close any areas to hunting where evidence from band recoveries or other sources indicates unacceptable harvest of non-target populations during the special season (60 FR 45020). Because the Terre Haute region does not meet established criteria, we cannot grant operational status for these 6 counties (Clay, Greene, Parke, Sullivan, Vermillion, and Vigo Counties). For the remaining 24 of the 30 counties involved in the experiment, we do agree with the Mississippi Flyway Council's recommendation and grant them operational status.

We recognize that the recently published Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) on migratory bird hunting contains a proposal to remove evaluation criteria for special Canada goose seasons (75 FR 39577). In light of this proposal, we would be amenable to allowing the special late season to continue in the Terre Haute region on an experimental basis until the status of evaluation criteria for such seasons has been resolved. In the interim, we will require the same intensity of data collection in the Terre Haute region with regard to morphometric measurements on harvested birds, and analysis of band-recovery and harvest data.

5. White-Fronted Geese

Council Recommendations: The Pacific Flyway Council recommended increasing the daily bag limit for white-fronted geese from 2 to 4 for hunting days occurring after the last Sunday in January in the Klamath County Zone of Oregon. They also made several other dark goose recommendations affecting white-fronted geese (see4. Canada Geese, B. Regular Seasons for further discussion).

Service Response: Specific to white-fronted geese, we concur with the Pacific Flyway Council's recommended changes in the Klamath County Zone of Oregon. The Pacific Population of greater white-fronted geese is currently above population goal and the index for the population increased substantially this year. The 3-year average is now greater than twice the management goal and we expect excellent production this summer. The Council notes that agricultural depredations caused by spring staging geese in the Klamath Basin continue to be a serious issue and believes that increasing the daily bag limits in Oregon's Klamath Zone will help contribute to addressing this conflict. We note that potential concerns over Tule geese were addressed by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and California Department of Fish and Game, in cooperation with the Service, completing three seasons of harvest monitoring and flock distribution monitoring during the late-winter in Oregon's Klamath County Zone. Monitoring indicated that very few harvested white-fronted geese (as measured by biologists) were determined to be Tule geese from morphological measurements (4 of 329 geese). Additionally, monitoring of radio-marked Tule geese has shown their preference for habitats in the California portion of the Klamath Basin where they are unavailable for harvest in Oregon. The harvest of Canada geese after the last Sunday in January would continue to be prohibited under the change.

6. Brant

Council Recommendations: The Atlantic Flyway Council recommended continuation of a 50-day season with a 2-bird daily bag limit for Atlantic brant.

Service Response: We concur with the Atlantic Flyway Council's recommendation. The 2010 Mid-Winter Index (MWI) for Atlantic brant was 139,400, about 8 percent lower than the 2009 estimate of 151,300. However, conditions appeared to be favorable in most of the breeding range this spring; thus, average to above average brant production is expected this year. The Atlantic Flyway Management Plan calls for a 50-day season and a 2-bird daily bag limit at the current mid-winter index, and we support the season length and bag limit prescribed by the management plan.

7. Snow and Ross's (Light) Geese

Council Recommendations: The Atlantic Flyway Council recommended a 107-day regular season with a 25-bird daily bag limit and no possession limit for light geese in the Atlantic Flyway.

The Pacific Flyway Council made several recommendations concerning light geese. In the Klamath County Zone of Oregon, the Council recommended increasing the daily bag limit for light geese from 4 to 6 for hunting days occurring after the last Sunday inJanuary. The Council also recommended in Oregon's newly created Malheur County Zone, increasing the daily bag limit for light geese from 6 to 10 and specifying that all hunt days occurring after the last Sunday in January should be concurrent with Idaho's Zone 2.

Service Response: We support the Atlantic Flyway Council's recommendation to increase the daily bag limit for light geese from 15 to 25. Greater snow geese are above both the Atlantic Flyway and North American Waterfowl Management Plan desired population objectives. Additionally, we have declared light geese (including greater snow geese) an overabundant species and implemented special Conservation Order measures to increase the take of light geese (73 FR 65926 and 73 FR 65954). Given their current population status and our desire to reduce populations, we believe that there is no reason to constrain the daily bag limit to 15 birds and believe that this change may help contribute to higher light goose harvest during regular hunting seasons.

In Oregon, we agree with the Pacific Flyway Council's light goose proposals intended to assist landowners with depredation issues, reduce goose numbers, and enhance goose hazing effects. Taken together, these proposals would allow Oregon the flexibility to hold differential seasons for light geese in the newly proposed Malheur County Zone and the modified Harney and Lake County Zone, and institute a late-winter light goose season in the Malheur County Zone to help address agricultural depredations caused by light geese. By requiring that the Oregon hunt coincide with the current late-winter light goose season in adjacent areas of Idaho, the Council believes that this should help alleviate agricultural depredations caused by staging light geese in adjacent areas of Oregon and Idaho by not allowing geese to simply move into closed areas. We agree. While past light goose harvest has historically been minimal in this area, the Council expects their proposals to significantly increase light goose harvest in Malheur County. They note that during the late winter and early spring, light geese are abundant in portions of Malheur County, especially near agricultural lands in proximity to the Snake River, as the geese stage during migration en route to breeding areas in the Arctic. We note that all 3 populations of light geese in the Pacific Flyway are currently above their respective population goals.

NEPA Consideration

NEPA considerations are covered by the programmatic document “Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement: Issuance of Annual Regulations Permitting the Sport Hunting of Migratory Birds (FSES 88-14),” filed with the Environmental Protection Agency on June 9, 1988. We published a notice of availability in the Federal Register on June 16, 1988 (53 FR 22582). We published our Record of Decision on August 18, 1988 (53 FR 31341). In addition, an August 1985 environmental assessment entitled “Guidelines for Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Federal Indian Reservations and Ceded Lands” is available from the address indicated under the caption ADDRESSES.

In a notice published in the September 8, 2005, Federal Register(70 FR 53376), we announced our intent to develop a new Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for the migratory bird hunting program. Public scoping meetings were held in the spring of 2006, as detailed in a March 9, 2006, Federal Register(71 FR 12216). We released the draft SEIS on July 9, 2010 (75 FR 39577). The draft SEIS is available by either writing to the address indicated under ADDRESSES or by viewing our Web site at http://www.fws.gov/migratorybirds.

Endangered Species Act Consideration

Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531-1543; 87 Stat. 884), provides that, “The Secretary shall review other programs administered by him and utilize such programs in furtherance of the purposes of this Act” (and) shall “insure that any action authorized, funded, or carried out * * * is not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of any endangered species or threatened species or result in the destruction or adverse modification of [critical] habitat. * * *.” Consequently, we conducted formal consultations to ensure that actions resulting from these regulations would not likely jeopardize the continued existence of endangered or threatened species or result in the destruction or adverse modification of their critical habitat. Findings from these consultations are included in a biological opinion, which concluded that the regulations are not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of any endangered or threatened species. Additionally, these findings may have caused modification of some regulatory measures previously proposed, and the final frameworks reflect any such modifications. Our biological opinions resulting from this section 7 consultation are public documents available for public inspection at the address indicated under ADDRESSES.

Executive Order 12866

The Office of Management and Budget has determined that this rule is significant and has reviewed this rule under Executive Order 12866. OMB bases its determination of regulatory significance upon the following four criteria: (a) Whether the rule will have an annual effect of $100 million or more on the economy or adversely affect an economic sector, productivity, jobs, the environment, or other units of the government; (b) Whether the rule will create inconsistencies with other Federal agencies' actions; (c) Whether the rule will materially affect entitlements, grants, user fees, loan programs, or the rights and obligations of their recipients; and (d) Whether the rule raises novel legal or policy issues.

An economic analysis was prepared for the 2008-09 season. This analysis was based on data from the 2006 National Hunting and Fishing Survey, the most recent year for which data are available (see discussion in Regulatory Flexibility Act section below). This analysis estimated consumer surplus for three alternatives for duck hunting (estimates for other species are not quantified due to lack of data). The alternatives are (1) Issue restrictive regulations allowing fewer days than those issued during the 2007-08 season, (2) Issue moderate regulations allowing more days than those in alternative 1, and (3) Issue liberal regulations identical to the regulations in the 2007-08 season. For the 2008-09 season, we chose alternative 3, with an estimated consumer surplus across all flyways of $205-$270 million. Based on population status information, there were no significant changes to the season frameworks for the 2010-11 season, and as such, we again considered these three alternatives. For these reasons, we have not conducted a new economic analysis, but the 2008-09 analysis is part of the record for this rule and is available at http://www.fws.gov/migratorybirds/NewReportsPublications/SpecialTopics/SpecialTopics.html#HuntingRegs or at http://www.regulations.gov at Docket No. FWS-R9-MB-2010-0040.

Regulatory Flexibility Act

The regulations have a significant economic impact on substantial numbers of small entities under the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601et seq.). We analyzed the economic impacts of the annual hunting regulations on small business entities in detail as part of the 1981 cost-benefit analysis. This analysis was revisedannually from 1990-95. In 1995, the Service issued a Small Entity Flexibility Analysis (Analysis), which was subsequently updated in 1996, 1998, 2004, and 2008. The primary source of information about hunter expenditures for migratory game bird hunting is the National Hunting and Fishing Survey, which is conducted at 5-year intervals. The 2008 Analysis was based on the 2006 National Hunting and Fishing Survey and the U.S. Department of Commerce's County Business Patterns, from which it was estimated that migratory bird hunters would spend approximately $1.2 billion at small businesses in 2008. Copies of the Analysis are available upon request from the Division of Migratory Bird Management (see ADDRESSES) or from our Web site at http://www.fws.gov/migratorybirds/NewReportsPublications/SpecialTopics/SpecialTopics.html#HuntingRegs or at http://www.regulations.gov at Docket No. FWS-R9-MB-2010-0040.

Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act

This rule is a major rule under 5 U.S.C. 804(2), the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act. For the reasons outlined above, this rule has an annual effect on the economy of $100 million or more. However, because this rule establishes hunting seasons, we do not plan to defer the effective date under the exemption contained in 5 U.S.C. 808(1).

Paperwork Reduction Act

We examined these regulations under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501et seq.). The various recordkeeping and reporting requirements imposed under regulations established in 50 CFR part 20, subpart K, are utilized in the formulation of migratory game bird hunting regulations. Specifically, OMB has approved the information collection requirements of our Migratory Bird Surveys and assigned control number 1018-0023 (expires 2/28/2011). This information is used to provide a sampling frame for voluntary national surveys to improve our harvest estimates for all migratory game birds in order to better manage these populations.A Federal agency may not conduct or sponsor and a person is not required to respond to a collection of information unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number.

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act

We have determined and certify, in compliance with the requirements of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act, 2 U.S.C. 1502et seq., that this rulemaking will not impose a cost of $100 million or more in any given year on local or State government or private entities. Therefore, this rule is not a “significant regulatory action” under the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act.

Civil Justice Reform—Executive Order 12988

The Department has determined that this rule will not unduly burden the judicial system and that it meets the requirements of sections 3(a) and 3(b)(2) of Executive Order 12988.

Takings Implication Assessment

In accordance with Executive Order 12630, this rule, authorized by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, does not have significant takings implications and does not affect any constitutionally protected property rights. This rule will not result in the physical occupancy of property, the physical invasion of property, or the regulatory taking of any property. In fact, these rules allow hunters to exercise otherwise unavailable privileges and, therefore, reduce restrictions on the use of private and public property.

Energy Effects—Executive Order 13211

Executive Order 13211 requires agencies to prepare Statements of Energy Effects when undertaking certain actions. While this rule is a significant regulatory action under Executive Order 12866, it is not expected to adversely affect energy supplies, distribution, or use. Therefore, this action is not a significant energy action and no Statement of Energy Effects is required.

Government-to-Government Relationship With Tribes

In accordance with the President's memorandum of April 29, 1994, “Government-to-Government Relations with Native American Tribal Governments” (59 FR 22951), Executive Order 13175, and 512 DM 2, we have evaluated possible effects on Federally recognized Indian tribes and have determined that there are no effects on Indian trust resources. However, in the May 13Federal Register, we solicited proposals for special migratory bird hunting regulations for certain Tribes on Federal Indian reservations, off-reservation trust lands, and ceded lands for the 2010-11 migratory bird hunting season. The resulting proposals were contained in a separate proposed rule (75 FR 47682). By virtue of these actions, we have consulted with Tribes affected by this rule.

Federalism Effects

Due to the migratory nature of certain species of birds, the Federal Government has been given responsibility over these species by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. We annually prescribe frameworks from which the States make selections regarding the hunting of migratory birds, and we employ guidelines to establish special regulations on Federal Indian reservations and ceded lands. This process preserves the ability of the States and Tribes to determine which seasons meet their individual needs. Any State or Indian Tribe may be more restrictive than the Federal frameworks at any time. The frameworks are developed in a cooperative process with the States and the Flyway Councils. This process allows States to participate in the development of frameworks from which they will make selections, thereby having an influence on their own regulations. These rules do not have a substantial direct effect on fiscal capacity, change the roles or responsibilities of Federal or State governments, or intrude on State policy or administration. Therefore, in accordance with Executive Order 13132, these regulations do not have significant federalism effects and do not have sufficient federalism implications to warrant the preparation of a Federalism Assessment.

Regulations Promulgation

The rulemaking process for migratory game bird hunting must, by its nature, operate under severe time constraints. However, we intend that the public be given the greatest possible opportunity to comment. Thus, when the preliminary proposed rulemaking was published, we established what we believed were the longest periods possible for public comment. In doing this, we recognized that when the comment period closed, time would be of the essence. That is, if there were a delay in the effective date of these regulations after this final rulemaking, States would have insufficient time to select season dates and limits; to communicate those selections to us; and to establish and publicize the necessary regulations and procedures to implement their decisions. We therefore find that “good cause” exists, within the terms of 5 U.S.C. 553(d)(3) of the Administrative Procedure Act, and these frameworks will, therefore, take effect immediately upon publication.

Therefore, under authority of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (July 3, 1918), as amended (16 U.S.C. 703-711), we prescribe final frameworks setting forththe species to be hunted, the daily bag and possession limits, the shooting hours, the season lengths, the earliest opening and latest closing season dates, and hunting areas, from which State conservation agency officials will select hunting season dates and other options. Upon receipt of season selections from these officials, we will publish a final rulemaking amending 50 CFR part 20 to reflect seasons, limits, and shooting hours for the conterminous United States for the 2010-11 season.

List of subjects in 50 cfr part 20

Exports, Hunting, Imports, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Transportation, Wildlife.

Dated: September 16, 2010. Thomas L. Strickland,

Assistant Secretary for Fish and Wildlife and Parks.

Part 20—[amended]

The rules that eventually will be promulgated for the 2010-11 hunting season are authorized under 16 U.S.C. 703-712 and 16 U.S.C. 742 a-j.

Final Regulations Frameworks for 2010-11 Late Hunting Seasons on Certain Migratory Game Birds

Pursuant to the Migratory Bird Treaty Act and delegated authorities, the Department has approved the following frameworks for season lengths, shooting hours, bag and possession limits, and outside dates within which States may select seasons for hunting waterfowl and coots between the dates of September 1, 2010, and March 10, 2011.

General

Dates: All outside dates noted below are inclusive.

Shooting and Hawking (taking by falconry) Hours: Unless otherwise specified, from one-half hour before sunrise to sunset daily.

Possession Limits: Unless otherwise specified, possession limits are twice the daily bag limit.

Flyways and Management Units

Waterfowl Flyways

Atlantic Flyway—includes Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Vermont, Virginia, and West Virginia.

Mississippi Flyway—includes Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, Tennessee, and Wisconsin.

Central Flyway—includes Colorado (east of the Continental Divide), Kansas, Montana (Counties of Blaine, Carbon, Fergus, Judith Basin, Stillwater, Sweetgrass, Wheatland, and all counties east thereof), Nebraska, New Mexico (east of the Continental Divide except the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation), North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming (east of the Continental Divide).

Pacific Flyway—includes Alaska, Arizona, California, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and those portions of Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, and Wyoming not included in the Central Flyway.

Management Units

High Plains Mallard Management Unit—roughly defined as that portion of the Central Flyway that lies west of the 100th meridian.

Definitions

For the purpose of hunting regulations listed below, the collective terms “dark” and “light” geese include the following species:

Dark geese: Canada geese, white-fronted geese, brant (except in California, Oregon, Washington, and the Atlantic Flyway), and all other goose species except light geese.

Light geese: Snow (including blue) geese and Ross's geese.

Area, Zone, and Unit Descriptions: Geographic descriptions related to late-season regulations are contained in a later portion of this document.

Area-Specific Provisions: Frameworks for open seasons, season lengths, bag and possession limits, and other special provisions are listed below by Flyway.

Waterfowl Seasons in the Atlantic Flyway

In the Atlantic Flyway States of Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, where Sunday hunting is prohibited statewide by State law, all Sundays are closed to all take of migratory waterfowl (including mergansers and coots).

Special Youth Waterfowl Hunting Days

Outside Dates: States may select 2 consecutive days (hunting days in Atlantic Flyway States with compensatory days) per duck-hunting zone, designated as “Youth Waterfowl Hunting Days,” in addition to their regular duck seasons. The days must be held outside any regular duck season on a weekend, holiday, or other non-school day when youth hunters would have the maximum opportunity to participate. The days may be held up to 14 days before or after any regular duck-season frameworks or within any split of a regular duck season, or within any other open season on migratory birds.

Daily Bag Limits: The daily bag limits may include ducks, geese, tundra swans, mergansers, coots, moorhens, and gallinules and would be the same as those allowed in the regular season. Flyway species and area restrictions would remain in effect.

Shooting Hours: One-half hour before sunrise to sunset.

Participation Restrictions: Youth hunters must be 15 years of age or younger. In addition, an adult at least 18 years of age must accompany the youth hunter into the field. This adult may not duck hunt but may participate in other seasons that are open on the special youth day. Tundra swans may only be taken by participants possessing applicable tundra swan permits.

Atlantic Flyway

Ducks, Mergansers, and Coots

Outside Dates: Between the Saturday nearest September 24 (September 25) and the last Sunday in January (January 30).

Hunting Seasons and Duck Limits: 60 days. The daily bag limit is 6 ducks, including no more than 4 mallards (2 hens), 1 black duck, 2 pintails, 1 mottled duck, 1 fulvous whistling duck, 3 wood ducks, 2 redheads, 2 scaup, 1 canvasback, and 4 scoters.

Closures: The season on harlequin ducks is closed.

Sea Ducks: Within the special sea duck areas, during the regular duck season in the Atlantic Flyway, States may choose to allow the above sea duck limits in addition to the limits applying to other ducks during the regular duck season. In all other areas, sea ducks may be taken only during the regular open season for ducks and are part of the regular duck season daily bag (not to exceed 4 scoters) and possession limits.

Merganser Limits: The daily bag limit of mergansers is 5, only 2 of which may be hooded mergansers. In States that include mergansers in the duck bag limit, the daily limit is the same as the duck bag limit, only two of which may be hooded mergansers.

Coot Limits: The daily bag limit is 15 coots.

Lake Champlain Zone, New York: The waterfowl seasons, limits, and shooting hours shall be the same as those selected for the Lake Champlain Zone of Vermont.

Connecticut River Zone, Vermont: The waterfowl seasons, limits, and shooting hours shall be the same asthose selected for the Inland Zone of New Hampshire.

Zoning and Split Seasons: Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, and Virginia may split their seasons into three segments; Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Vermont, and West Virginia may select hunting seasons by zones and may split their seasons into two segments in each zone.

Canada Geese

Season Lengths, Outside Dates, and Limits: Specific regulations for Canada geese are shown below by State. These seasons also include white-fronted geese. Unless specified otherwise, seasons may be split into two segments. In areas within States where the framework closing date for Atlantic Population (AP) goose seasons overlaps with special late-season frameworks for resident geese, the framework closing date for AP goose seasons is January 14.

Connecticut

North Atlantic Population (NAP) Zone: Between October 1 and January 31, a 60-day season may be held with a 2-bird daily bag limit.

Atlantic Population (AP) Zone: A 45-day season may be held between the fourth Saturday in October (October 23) and January 31, with a 3-bird daily bag limit.

South Zone: A special season may be held between January 15 and February 15, with a 5-bird daily bag limit.

Resident Population (RP) Zone: An 80-day season may be held between October 1 and February 15, with a 5-bird daily bag limit. The season may be split into 3 segments.

Delaware: A 45-day season may be held between November 15 and January 31, with a 2-bird daily bag limit.

Florida: An 80-day season may be held between November 15 and February 15, with a 5-bird daily bag limit. The season may be split into 3 segments.

Georgia: In specific areas, an 80-day season may be held between November 15 and February 15, with a 5-bird daily bag limit. The season may be split into 3 segments.

Maine: A 60-day season may be held Statewide between October 1 and January 31, with a 2-bird daily bag limit.

Maryland

RP Zone: An 80-day season may be held between November 15 and March 10, with a 5-bird daily bag limit. The season may be split into 3 segments.

AP Zone: A 45-day season may be held between November 15 and January 31, with a 2-bird daily bag limit.

Massachusetts

NAP Zone: A 60-day season may be held between October 1 and January 31, with a 2-bird daily bag limit. Additionally, a special season may be held from January 15 to February 15, with a 5-bird daily bag limit.

AP Zone: A 45-day season may be held between October 20 and January 31, with a 3-bird daily bag limit.

New Hampshire: A 60-day season may be held statewide between October 1 and January 31, with a 2-bird daily bag limit.

New Jersey

Statewide: A 45-day season may be held between the fourth Saturday in October (October 23) and January 31, with a 3-bird daily bag limit.

Special Late Goose Season Area: A special season may be held in designated areas of North and South New Jersey from January 15 to February 15, with a 5-bird daily bag limit.

New York

NAP Zone: Between October 1 and January 31, a 60-day season may be held, with a 2-bird daily bag limit in the High Harvest areas; and between October 1 and February 15, a 70-day season may be held, with a 3-bird daily bag limit in the Low Harvest areas.

Special Late Goose Season Area: A special season may be held between January 15 and February 15, with a 5-bird daily bag limit in designated areas of Suffolk County.

AP Zone: A 45-day season may be held between the fourth Saturday in October (October 23), except in the Lake Champlain Area where the opening date is October 20, and January 31, with a 3-bird daily bag limit.

Western Long Island RP Zone: A 107-day season may be held between the Saturday nearest September 24 (September 25) and March 10, with an 8-bird daily bag limit. The season may be split into 3 segments.

Rest of State RP Zone: An 80-day season may be held between the fourth Saturday in October (October 23) and March 10, with a 5-bird daily bag limit. The season may be split into 3 segments.

North Carolina

SJBP Zone: A 70-day season may be held between October 1 and December 31, with a 5-bird daily bag limit.

RP Zone: An 80-day season may be held between October 1 and March 10, with a 5-bird daily bag limit. The season may be split into 3 segments.

Northeast Hunt Unit: A 7-day season may be held between the Saturday prior to December 25 (December 18) and January 31, with a 1-bird daily bag limit.

Pennsylvania

SJBP Zone: A 70-day season may be held between the second Saturday in October (October 9) and February 15, with a 3-bird daily bag limit.

RP Zone: An 80-day season may be held between the fourth Saturday in October (October 23) and March 10, with a 5-bird daily bag limit. The season may be split into 3 segments.

AP Zone: A 45-day season may be held between the fourth Saturday in October (October 23) and January 31, with a 3-bird daily bag limit.

Rhode Island: A 60-day season may be held between October 1 and January 31, with a 2-bird daily bag limit. A special late season may be held in designated areas from January 15 to February 15, with a 5-bird daily bag limit.

South Carolina: In designated areas, an 80-day season may be held during November 15 to February 15, with a 5-bird daily bag limit. The season may be split into 3 segments.

Vermont: A 45-day season may be held between October 20 and January 31 with a 3-bird daily bag limit in the Lake Champlain Zone and Interior Zone. A 60-day season may be held in the Connecticut River Zone between October 1 and January 31, with a 2-bird daily bag limit.

Virginia

SJBP Zone: A 40-day season may be held between November 15 and January 14, with a 3-bird daily bag limit. Additionally, a special late season may be held between January 15 and February 15, with a 5-bird daily bag limit.

AP Zone: A 45-day season may be held between November 15 and January 31, with a 2-bird daily bag limit.

RP Zone: An 80-day season may be held between November 15 and March 10, with a 5-bird daily bag limit. The season may be split into 3 segments.

West Virginia: An 80-day season may be held between October 1 and January 31, with a 5-bird daily bag limit. The season may be split into 2 segments in each zone.

Light Geese

Season Lengths, Outside Dates, and Limits: States may select a 107-day season between October 1 and March 10, with a 25-bird daily bag limit and no possession limit. States may split their seasons into three segments.

Brant

Season Lengths, Outside Dates, and Limits: States may select a 50-day season between the Saturday nearest September 24 (September 25) and January 31, with a 2-bird daily bag limit. States may split their seasons into two segments.

Mississippi Flyway

Ducks, Mergansers, and Coots

Outside Dates: Between the Saturday nearest September 24 (September 25) and the last Sunday in January (January 30).

Hunting Seasons and Duck Limits: The season may not exceed 60 days, with a daily bag limit of 6 ducks, including no more than 4 mallards (no more than 2 of which may be females), 1 mottled duck, 1 black duck, 2 pintails, 3 wood ducks, 1 canvasback, 2 scaup, and 2 redheads.

Merganser Limits: The daily bag limit is 5, only 2 of which may be hooded mergansers. In States that include mergansers in the duck bag limit, the daily limit is the same as the duck bag limit, only 2 of which may be hooded mergansers.

Coot Limits: The daily bag limit is 15 coots.

Zoning and Split Seasons: Alabama, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, Tennessee, and Wisconsin may select hunting seasons by zones.

In Alabama, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Tennessee, and Wisconsin, the season may be split into two segments in each zone.

In Arkansas and Mississippi, the season may be split into three segments.

Geese

Split Seasons: Seasons for geese may be split into three segments.

Season Lengths, Outside Dates, and Limits: States may select seasons for light geese not to exceed 107 days, with 20 geese daily between the Saturday nearest September 24 (September 25) and March 10; for white-fronted geese not to exceed 72 days with 2 geese daily or 86 days with 1 goose daily between the Saturday nearest September 24 (September 25) and the Sunday nearest February 15 (February 13); and for brant not to exceed 70 days, with 2 brant daily or 107 days with 1 brant daily between the Saturday nearest September 24 (September 25) and January 31. There is no possession limit for light geese. Specific regulations for Canada geese and exceptions to the above general provisions are shown below by State. Except as noted below, the outside dates for Canada geese are the Saturday nearest September 24 (September 25) and January 31.

Alabama: In the SJBP Goose Zone, the season for Canada geese may not exceed 70 days. Elsewhere, the season for Canada geese may extend for 70 days in the respective duck-hunting zones. The daily bag limit is 2 Canada geese.

Arkansas: In the Northwest Zone, the season for Canada geese may extend for 82 days. In the remainder of the State, the season may not exceed 72 days. The season may extend to February 15. The daily bag limit is 2 Canada geese.

Illinois: The season for Canada geese may extend for 85 days in the North and Central Zones and 66 days in the South Zone. The daily bag limit is 2 Canada geese.

Indiana: The season for Canada geese may extend for 74 days. The daily bag limit is 2 Canada geese.

Late Canada Goose Season Areas

(a) A special Canada goose season of up to 15 days may be held during February 1-15 in Steuben, Lagrange, Elkhart, St. Joseph, La Porte, Starke, Marshall, Kosciusko, Noble, De Kalb, Allen, Whitley, Huntington, Wells, Adams, Boone, Hamilton, Madison, Hendricks, Marion, Hancock, Morgan, Johnson, and Shelby Counties. During this special season the daily bag limit cannot exceed 5 Canada geese.

(b) An experimental special Canada goose season of up to 15 days may be held during February 1-15 in Clay, Greene, Parke, Sullivan, Vermillion, and Vigo Counties. During this special season the daily bag limit cannot exceed 5 Canada geese.

Iowa: The season for Canada geese may extend for 107 days. The daily bag limit is 3 Canada geese.

Kentucky

(a) Western Zone—The season for Canada geese may extend for 70 days (85 days in Fulton County). The season in Fulton County may extend to February 15. The daily bag limit is 2 Canada geese.

(b) Pennyroyal/Coalfield Zone—The season may extend for 70 days. The daily bag limit is 2 Canada geese.

(c) Remainder of the State—The season may extend for 70 days. The daily bag limit is 2 Canada geese.

Louisiana: The season for Canada geese may extend for 44 days. The daily bag limit is 1 Canada goose.

Michigan

(a) North Zone—The framework opening date for all geese is September 16 and the season for Canada geese may extend for 45 days. The daily bag limit is 2 Canada geese.

(b) Middle Zone—The framework opening date for all geese is September 16 and the season for Canada geese may extend for 45 days. The daily bag limit is 2 Canada geese.

(c) South Zone—The framework opening date for all geese is September 16 and the season for Canada geese may extend for 45 days. The daily bag limit is 2 Canada geese.

(1) Allegan County and Muskegon Wastewater GMU—The framework opening date for all geese is September 16 and the season for Canada geese may extend for 45 days. The daily bag limit is 2 Canada geese.

(2) Saginaw County and Tuscola/Huron GMUs—The framework opening date for all geese is September 16 and the season for Canada geese may extend for 45 days through December 30 and an additional 30 days may be held between December 31 and February 7. The daily bag limit is 2 Canada geese.

(d) Southern Michigan Late Season Canada Goose Zone—A 30-day special Canada goose season may be held between December 31 and February 7. The daily bag limit may not exceed 5 Canada geese.

Minnesota: The season for Canada geese may extend for 85 days. The daily bag limit is 3 Canada geese.

Mississippi: The season for Canada geese may extend for 70 days. The daily bag limit is 3 Canada geese.

Missouri: The season for Canada geese may extend for 85 days. The daily bag limit is 3 Canada geese.

Ohio

(a) Lake Erie Zone-The season may extend for 74 days. The daily bag limit is 2 Canada geese.

(b) North Zone-The season may extend for 74 days. The daily bag limit is 2 Canada geese.

(c) South Zone—The season may extend for 74 days. The daily bag limit is 2 Canada geese.

Tennessee

(a) Northwest Zone—The season for Canada geese may not exceed 72 days, and may extend to February 15. The daily bag limit is 2 Canada geese.

(b) Southwest Zone—The season for Canada geese may extend for 72 days. The daily bag limit is 2 Canada geese.

(c) Kentucky/Barkley Lakes Zone— The season for Canada geese may extend for 72 days. The daily bag limit is 2 Canada geese.

(d) Remainder of the State—The season for Canada geese may extend for 72 days. The daily bag limit is 2 Canada geese.

Wisconsin

(a) Horicon Zone—The framework opening date for all geese is September 16. The season may not exceed 92 days. All Canada geese harvested must be tagged. The season limit will be 6 Canada geese per permittee.

(b) Collins Zone—The framework opening date for all geese is September 16. The season may not exceed 70 days. All Canada geese harvested must be tagged. The season limit will be 6 Canada geese per permittee.

(c) Exterior Zone—The framework opening date for all geese is September 16. The season may not exceed 85 days. The daily bag limit is 2 Canada geese.

Additional Limits: In addition to the harvest limits stated for the respective zones above, an additional 4,500 Canada geese may be taken in the Horicon Zone under special agricultural permits.

Central Flyway

Ducks, Mergansers, and Coots

Outside Dates: Between the Saturday nearest September 24 (September 25) and the last Sunday in January (January 30).

Hunting Seasons

(1) High Plains Mallard Management Unit (roughly defined as that portion of the Central Flyway which lies west of the 100th meridian): 97 days. The last 23 days may start no earlier than the Saturday nearest December 10 (December 11).

(2) Remainder of the Central Flyway: 74 days.

Bag Limits: The daily bag limit is 6 ducks, with species and sex restrictions as follows: 5 mallards (no more than 2 of which may be females), 2 redheads, 2 scaup, 3 wood ducks, 2 pintails, and 1 canvasback. In Texas, the daily bag limit on mottled ducks is 1, except for the first 5 days of the season when it is closed.

Merganser Limits: The daily bag limit is 5 mergansers, only 2 of which may be hooded mergansers. In States that include mergansers in the duck daily bag limit, the daily limit may be the same as the duck bag limit, only two of which may be hooded mergansers.

Coot Limits: The daily bag limit is 15 coots.

Zoning and Split Seasons: Kansas (Low Plains portion), Montana, Nebraska (Low Plains portion), New Mexico, Oklahoma (Low Plains portion), South Dakota (Low Plains portion), Texas (Low Plains portion), and Wyoming may select hunting seasons by zones.

In Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, the regular season may be split into two segments.

In Colorado, the season may be split into three segments.

Geese

Split Seasons: Seasons for geese may be split into three segments. Three-way split seasons for Canada geese require Central Flyway Council and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service approval, and a 3-year evaluation by each participating State.

Outside Dates: For dark geese, seasons may be selected between the outside dates of the Saturday nearest September 24 (September 25) and the Sunday nearest February 15 (February 13). For light geese, outside dates for seasons may be selected between the Saturday nearest September 24 (September 25) and March 10. In the Rainwater Basin Light Goose Area (East and West) of Nebraska, temporal and spatial restrictions that are consistent with the late-winter snow goose hunting strategy cooperatively developed by the Central Flyway Council and the Service are required.

Season Lengths and Limits

Light Geese: States may select a light goose season not to exceed 107 days. The daily bag limit for light geese is 20 with no possession limit.

Dark Geese: In Kansas, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, and the Eastern Goose Zone of Texas, States may select a season for Canada geese (or any other dark goose species except white-fronted geese) not to exceed 107 days with a daily bag limit of 3. Additionally, in the Eastern Goose Zone of Texas, an alternative season of 107 days with a daily bag limit of 1 Canada goose may be selected. For white-fronted geese, these States may select either a season of 72 days with a bag limit of 2 or an 86-day season with a bag limit of 1.

In Colorado, Montana, New Mexico and Wyoming, States may select seasons not to exceed 107 days. The daily bag limit for dark geese is 5 in the aggregate.

In the Western Goose Zone of Texas, the season may not exceed 95 days. The daily bag limit for Canada geese (or any other dark goose species except white-fronted geese) is 5. The daily bag limit for white-fronted geese is 1.

Pacific Flyway

Ducks, Mergansers, Coots, Common Moorhens, and Purple Gallinules

Hunting Seasons and Duck Limits: Concurrent 107 days. The daily bag limit is 7 ducks and mergansers, including no more than 2 female mallards, 2 pintails, 3 scaup, 1 canvasback, and 2 redheads. For scaup, the season length would be 86 days, which may be split according to applicable zones/split duck hunting configurations approved for each State.

The season on coots and common moorhens may be between the outside dates for the season on ducks, but not to exceed 107 days.

Coot, Common Moorhen, and Purple Gallinule Limits: The daily bag and possession limits of coots, common moorhens, and purple gallinules are 25, singly or in the aggregate.

Outside Dates: Between the Saturday nearest September 24 (September 25) and the last Sunday in January (January 30).

Zoning and Split Seasons: Arizona, California, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming may select hunting seasons by zones. Arizona, California, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming may split their seasons into two segments.

Colorado, Montana, and New Mexico may split their seasons into three segments.

Colorado River Zone, California: Seasons and limits shall be the same as seasons and limits selected in the adjacent portion of Arizona (South Zone).

Geese

Season Lengths, Outside Dates, and Limits

California, Oregon, and Washington

Dark geese: Except as subsequently noted, 100-day seasons may be selected, with outside dates between the Saturday nearest October 1 (October 2), and the last Sunday in January (January 30). The basic daily bag limit is 4 dark geese, except the dark goose bag limit does not include brant.

Light geese: Except as subsequently noted, 107-day seasons may be selected, with outside dates between the Saturday nearest October 1 (October 2), and March 10. The daily bag limit is 6 light geese.

Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming:

Dark geese: Except as subsequently noted, 107-day seasons may be selected, with outside dates between the Saturday nearest September 24 (September 25), and the last Sunday in January (January 30). The basic daily bag limit is 4 dark geese.

Light geese: Except as subsequently noted, 107-day seasons may be selected, with outside dates between the Saturday nearest September 24 (September 25),and March 10. The basic daily bag limit is 10 light geese.

Split Seasons: Unless otherwise specified, seasons for geese may be split into up to 3 segments. Three-way split seasons for Canada geese and white-fronted geese require Pacific Flyway Council and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service approval and a 3-year evaluation by each participating State.

Brant Season

Oregon may select a 16-day season, Washington a 16-day season, and California a 30-day season. Days must be consecutive. Washington and California may select hunting seasons by up to two zones. The daily bag limit is 2 brant and is in addition to dark goose limits. In Oregon and California, the brant season must end no later than December 15.

Arizona: The daily bag limit for dark geese is 3.

California

Northeastern Zone: The daily bag limit is 6 dark geese and may include no more than 1 cackling Canada goose or 1 Aleutian Canada goose.

Balance-of-State Zone: A 107-day season may be selected. Limits may not include more than 6 dark geese per day. In the Sacramento Valley Special Management Area, the season on white-fronted geese must end on or before December 14, and the daily bag limit shall contain no more than 2 white-fronted geese. In the North Coast Special Management Area, 107-day seasons may be selected, with outside dates between the Saturday nearest October 1 (October 2) and March 10. Hunting days that occur after the last Sunday in January shall be concurrent with Oregon's South Coast Zone.

Colorado: The daily bag limit for dark geese is 3.

Idaho

Zone 2: Hunting days that occur after the last Sunday in January shall be concurrent with Oregon's Malheur County Zone.

Nevada: The daily bag limit for dark geese is 3.

New Mexico: The daily bag limit for dark geese is 3.

Oregon

Except as subsequently noted, the dark goose daily bag limit is 4, including not more than 1 cackling or Aleutian goose.

Harney and Lake County Zone: For Lake County only, the daily dark goose bag limit may not include more than 1 white-fronted goose.

Klamath County Zone: A 107-day season may be selected, with outside dates between the Saturday nearest October 1 (October 2), and March 10. A 3-way split season may be selected. For hunting days after the last Sunday in January, the daily bag limit may not include Canada geese.

Malheur County Zone: The daily bag limit of light geese is 10. Hunting days that occur after the last Sunday in January shall be concurrent with Idaho's Zone 2.

Northwest Special Permit Zone: Outside dates are between the Saturday nearest October 1 (October 2) and March 10. The daily bag limit of dark geese is 4 including not more than 2 cackling or Aleutian geese and daily bag limit of light geese is 4. In those designated areas of Tillamook County open to hunting, the daily bag limit of dark geese is 3, including not more than 2 cackling or Aleutian geese.

South Coast Zone: The daily dark goose bag limit is 4 including cackling and Aleutian geese. In Oregon's South Coast Zone 107-day seasons may be selected, with outside dates between the Saturday nearest October 1 (October 2) and March 10. Hunting days that occur after the last Sunday in January shall be concurrent with California's North Coast Special Management Area. A 3-way split season may be selected.

Southwest Zone: The daily dark goose bag limit is 4 including cackling and Aleutian geese.

Utah: The daily bag limit for dark geese is 3.

Washington: The daily bag limit is 4 geese.

Area 1: Outside dates are between the Saturday nearest October 1 (October 2), and the last Sunday in January (January 30).

Areas 2A and 2B (Southwest Quota Zone): Except for designated areas, there will be no open season on Canada geese. See section on quota zones. In this area, the daily bag limit may include 2 cackling geese. In Southwest Quota Zone Area 2B (Pacific County), the daily bag limit may include 1 Aleutian goose.

Areas 4 and 5: A 107-day season may be selected for dark geese.

Wyoming: The daily bag limit for dark geese is 3.

Quota Zones

Seasons on geese must end upon attainment of individual quotas of dusky geese allotted to the designated areas of Oregon (90) and Washington (45). The September Canada goose season, the regular goose season, any special late dark goose season, and any extended falconry season, combined, must not exceed 107 days, and the established quota of dusky geese must not be exceeded. Hunting of geese in those designated areas will be only by hunters possessing a State-issued permit authorizing them to do so. In a Service-approved investigation, the State must obtain quantitative information on hunter compliance of those regulations aimed at reducing the take of dusky geese. If the monitoring program cannot be conducted, for any reason, the season must immediately close. In the designated areas of the Washington Southwest Quota Zone, a special late goose season may be held between the Saturday following the close of the general goose season and March 10. In the Northwest Special Permit Zone of Oregon, the framework closing date is March 10. Regular goose seasons may be split into 3 segments within the Oregon and Washington quota zones.

Swans

In portions of the Pacific Flyway (Montana, Nevada, and Utah), an open season for taking a limited number of swans may be selected. Permits will be issued by the State and will authorize each permittee to take no more than 1 swan per season with each permit. Nevada may issue up to 2 permits per hunter. Montana and Utah may only issue 1 permit per hunter. Each State's season may open no earlier than the Saturday nearest October 1 (October 2). These seasons are also subject to the following conditions:

Montana: No more than 500 permits may be issued. The season must end no later than December 1. The State must implement a harvest-monitoring program to measure the species composition of the swan harvest and should use appropriate measures to maximize hunter compliance in reporting bill measurement and color information.

Utah: No more than 2,000 permits may be issued. During the swan season, no more than 10 trumpeter swans may be taken. The season must end no later than the second Sunday in December (December 12) or upon attainment of 10 trumpeter swans in the harvest, whichever occurs earliest. The Utah season remains subject to the terms of the Memorandum of Agreement entered into with the Service in August 2001, regarding harvest monitoring, season closure procedures, and education requirements to minimize the take of trumpeter swans during the swan season.

Nevada: No more than 650 permits may be issued. During the swan season, no more than 5 trumpeter swans may be taken. The season must end no later than the Sunday following January 1 (January 2) or upon attainment of 5trumpeter swans in the harvest, whichever occurs earliest.

In addition, the States of Utah and Nevada must implement a harvest-monitoring program to measure the species composition of the swan harvest. The harvest-monitoring program must require that all harvested swans or their species-determinant parts be examined by either State or Federal biologists for the purpose of species classification. The States should use appropriate measures to maximize hunter compliance in providing bagged swans for examination. Further, the States of Montana, Nevada, and Utah must achieve at least an 80-percent compliance rate, or subsequent permits will be reduced by 10 percent. All three States must provide to the Service by June 30, 2011, a report detailing harvest, hunter participation, reporting compliance, and monitoring of swan populations in the designated hunt areas.

Tundra Swans

In portions of the Atlantic Flyway (North Carolina and Virginia) and the Central Flyway (North Dakota, South Dakota [east of the Missouri River], and that portion of Montana in the Central Flyway), an open season for taking a limited number of tundra swans may be selected. Permits will be issued by the States that authorize the take of no more than 1 tundra swan per permit. A second permit may be issued to hunters from unused permits remaining after the first drawing. The States must obtain harvest and hunter participation data. These seasons are also subject to the following conditions:

In the Atlantic Flyway:

—The season may be 90 days, from October 1 to January 31.

—In North Carolina, no more than 5,000 permits may be issued.

—In Virginia, no more than 600 permits may be issued.

In the Central Flyway:

—The season may be 107 days, from the Saturday nearest October 1 (October 2) to January 31.

—In the Central Flyway portion of Montana, no more than 500 permits may be issued.

—In North Dakota, no more than 2,200 permits may be issued.

—In South Dakota, no more than 1,300 permits may be issued.

Area, Unit, and Zone Descriptions

Ducks (Including Mergansers) and Coots

Atlantic Flyway

Connecticut

North Zone: That portion of the State north of I-95.

South Zone: Remainder of the State.

Maine

North Zone: That portion north of the line extending east along Maine State Highway 110 from the New Hampshire and Maine State line to the intersection of Maine State Highway 11 in Newfield; then north and east along Route 11 to the intersection of U.S. Route 202 in Auburn; then north and east on Route 202 to the intersection of Interstate Highway 95 in Augusta; then north and east along I-95 to Route 15 in Bangor; then east along Route 15 to Route 9; then east along Route 9 to Stony Brook in Baileyville; then east along Stony Brook to the United States border.

South Zone: Remainder of the State.

Massachusetts

Western Zone: That portion of the State west of a line extending south from the Vermont State line on I-91 to MA 9, west on MA 9 to MA 10, south on MA 10 to U.S. 202, south on U.S. 202 to the Connecticut State line.

Central Zone: That portion of the State east of the Berkshire Zone and west of a line extending south from the New Hampshire State line on I-95 to U.S. 1, south on U.S. 1 to I-93, south on I-93 to MA 3, south on MA 3 to U.S. 6, west on U.S. 6 to MA 28, west on MA 28 to I-195, west to the Rhode Island State line; except the waters, and the lands 150 yards inland from the high-water mark, of the Assonet River upstream to the MA 24 bridge, and the Taunton River upstream to the Center St.-Elm St. bridge shall be in the Coastal Zone.

Coastal Zone: That portion of Massachusetts east and south of the Central Zone.

New Hampshire

Coastal Zone: That portion of the State east of a line extending west from the Maine State line in Rollinsford on NH 4 to the city of Dover, south to NH 108, south along NH 108 through Madbury, Durham, and Newmarket to NH 85 in Newfields, south to NH 101 in Exeter, east to NH 51 (Exeter-Hampton Expressway), east to I-95 (New Hampshire Turnpike) in Hampton, and south along I-95 to the Massachusetts State line.

Inland Zone: That portion of the State north and west of the above boundary and along the Massachusetts State line crossing the Connecticut River to Interstate 91 and northward in Vermont to Route 2, east to 102, northward to the Canadian border.

New Jersey

Coastal Zone: That portion of the State seaward of a line beginning at the New York State line in Raritan Bay and extending west along the New York State line to NJ 440 at Perth Amboy; west on NJ 440 to the Garden State Parkway; south on the Garden State Parkway to the shoreline at Cape May and continuing to the Delaware State line in Delaware Bay.

North Zone: That portion of the State west of the Coastal Zone and north of a line extending west from the Garden State Parkway on NJ 70 to the New Jersey Turnpike, north on the turnpike to U.S. 206, north on U.S. 206 to U.S. 1 at Trenton, west on U.S. 1 to the Pennsylvania State line in the Delaware River.

South Zone: That portion of the State not within the North Zone or the Coastal Zone.

New York

Lake Champlain Zone: That area east and north of a continuous line extending along U.S. 11 from the New York-Canada International boundary south to NY 9B, south along NY 9B to U.S. 9, south along U.S. 9 to NY 22 south of Keesville; south along NY 22 to the west shore of South Bay, along and around the shoreline of South Bay to NY 22 on the east shore of South Bay; southeast along NY 22 to U.S. 4, northeast along U.S. 4 to the Vermont State line.

Long Island Zone: That area consisting of Nassau County, Suffolk County, that area of Westchester County southeast of I-95, and their tidal waters.

Western Zone: That area west of a line extending from Lake Ontario east along the north shore of the Salmon River to I-81, and south along I-81 to the Pennsylvania State line.

Northeastern Zone: That area north of a line extending from Lake Ontario east along the north shore of the Salmon River to I-81, south along I-81 to NY 31, east along NY 31 to NY 13, north along NY 13 to NY 49, east along NY 49 to NY 365, east along NY 365 to NY 28, east along NY 28 to NY 29, east along NY 29 to I-87, north along I-87 to U.S. 9 (at Exit 20), north along U.S. 9 to NY 149, east along NY 149 to U.S. 4, north along U.S. 4 to the Vermont State line, exclusive of the Lake Champlain Zone.

Southeastern Zone: The remaining portion of New York.

Pennsylvania

Lake Erie Zone: The Lake Erie waters of Pennsylvania and a shoreline margin along Lake Erie from New York on the east to Ohio on the west extending 150 yards inland, but including all of Presque Isle Peninsula.

Northwest Zone: The area bounded on the north by the Lake Erie Zone and including all of Erie and Crawford Counties and those portions of Mercer and Venango Counties north of I-80.

North Zone: That portion of the State east of the Northwest Zone and north of a line extending east on I-80 to U.S. 220, Route 220 to I-180, I-180 to I-80, and I-80 to the Delaware River.

South Zone: The remaining portion of Pennsylvania.

Vermont

Lake Champlain Zone: The U.S. portion of Lake Champlain and that area north and west of the line extending from the New York State line along U.S. 4 to VT 22A at Fair Haven; VT 22A to U.S. 7 at Vergennes; U.S. 7 to the Canadian border.

Interior Zone: That portion of Vermont west of the Lake Champlain Zone and eastward of a line extending from the Massachusetts State line at Interstate 91; north along Interstate 91 to US 2; east along US 2 to VT 102; north along VT 102 to VT 253; north along VT 253 to the Canadian border.

Connecticut River Zone: The remaining portion of Vermont east of the Interior Zone.

West Virginia

Zone 1: That portion outside the boundaries in Zone 2.

Zone 2 (Allegheny Mountain Upland): That area bounded by a line extending south along U.S. 220 through Keyser to U.S. 50; U.S. 50 to WV 93; WV 93 south to WV 42; WV 42 south to Petersburg; WV 28 south to Minnehaha Springs; WV 39 west to U.S. 219; U.S. 219 south to I-64; I-64 west to U.S. 60; U.S. 60 west to U.S. 19; U.S. 19 north to I-79, I-79 north to I-68; I-68 east to the Maryland State line; and along the State line to the point of beginning.

Mississippi Flyway

Alabama

South Zone: Mobile and Baldwin Counties.

North Zone: The remainder of Alabama.

Illinois

North Zone: That portion of the State north of a line extending west from the Indiana border along Peotone-Beecher Road to Illinois Route 50, south along Illinois Route 50 to Wilmington-Peotone Road, west along Wilmington-Peotone Road to Illinois Route 53, north along Illinois Route 53 to New River Road, northwest along New River Road to Interstate Highway 55, south along I-55 to Pine Bluff-Lorenzo Road, west along Pine Bluff-Lorenzo Road to Illinois Route 47, north along Illinois Route 47 to I-80, west along I-80 to I-39, south along I-39 to Illinois Route 18, west along Illinois Route 18 to Illinois Route 29, south along Illinois Route 29 to Illinois Route 17, west along Illinois Route 17 to the Mississippi River, and due south across the Mississippi River to the Iowa border.

Central Zone: That portion of the State south of the North Zone to a line extending west from the Indiana border along Interstate Highway 70 to Illinois Route 4, south along Illinois Route 4 to Illinois Route 161, west along Illinois Route 161 to Illinois Route 158, south and west along Illinois Route 158 to Illinois Route 159, south along Illinois Route 159 to Illinois Route 156, west along Illinois Route 156 to A Road, north and west on A Road to Levee Road, north on Levee Road to the south shore of New Fountain Creek, west along the south shore of New Fountain Creek to the Mississippi River, and due west across the Mississippi River to the Missouri border.

South Zone: The remainder of Illinois.

Indiana

North Zone: That portion of the State north of a line extending east from the Illinois State line along State Road 18 to U.S. Highway 31, north along U.S. 31 to U.S. 24, east along U.S. 24 to Huntington, then southeast along U.S. 224 to the Ohio State line.

Ohio River Zone: That portion of the State south of a line extending east from the Illinois State line along Interstate Highway 64 to New Albany, east along State Road 62 to State Road 56, east along State Road 56 to Vevay, east and north on State 156 along the Ohio River to North Landing, north along State 56 to U.S. Highway 50, then northeast along U.S. 50 to the Ohio State line.

South Zone: That portion of the State between the North and Ohio River Zone boundaries.

Iowa

North Zone: That portion of the State north of a line extending east from the Nebraska border along State Highway 175 to State Highway 37, southeast along State Highway 37 to State Highway 183, northeast along State Highway 183 to State Highway 141, east along State Highway 141 to U.S. Highway 30, then east along U.S. Highway 30 to the Illinois border.

South Zone: The remainder of Iowa.

Kentucky

West Zone: All counties west of and including Butler, Daviess, Ohio, Simpson, and Warren Counties.

East Zone: The remainder of Kentucky.

Louisiana

West Zone: That portion of the State west and south of a line extending south from the Arkansas State line along Louisiana Highway 3 to Bossier City, east along Interstate Highway 20 to Minden, south along Louisiana 7 to Ringgold, east along Louisiana 4 to Jonesboro, south along U.S. Highway 167 to Lafayette, southeast along U.S. 90 to the Mississippi State line.

East Zone: The remainder of Louisiana.

Michigan

North Zone: The Upper Peninsula.

Middle Zone: That portion of the Lower Peninsula north of a line beginning at the Wisconsin State line in Lake Michigan due west of the mouth of Stony Creek in Oceana County; then due east to, and easterly and southerly along the south shore of Stony Creek to Scenic Drive, easterly and southerly along Scenic Drive to Stony Lake Road, easterly along Stony Lake and Garfield Roads to Michigan Highway 20, east along Michigan 20 to U.S. Highway 10 Business Route (BR) in the city of Midland, easterly along U.S. 10 BR to U.S. 10, easterly along U.S. 10 to Interstate Highway 75/U.S. Highway 23, northerly along I-75/U.S. 23 to the U.S. 23 exit at Standish, easterly along U.S. 23 to the centerline of the Au Gres River, then southerly along the centerline of the Au Gres River to Saginaw Bay, then on a line directly east 10 miles into Saginaw Bay, and from that point on a line directly northeast to the Canadian border.

South Zone: The remainder of Michigan.

Minnesota

North Duck Zone: That portion of the State north of a line extending east from the North Dakota State line along State Highway 210 to State Highway 23, east along State Highway 23 to State Highway 39, then east along State Highway 39 to the Wisconsin State line at the Oliver Bridge.

South Duck Zone: The remainder of Minnesota.

Missouri

North Zone: That portion of Missouri north of a line running west from theIllinois State line (Lock and Dam 25) on Lincoln County Highway N to Missouri Highway 79; south on Missouri Highway 79 to Missouri Highway 47; west on Missouri Highway 47 to Interstate 70; west on Interstate 70 to the Kansas State line.

South Zone: That portion of Missouri south of a line running west from the Illinois State line on Missouri Highway 34 to Interstate 55; south on Interstate 55 to U.S. Highway 62; west on U.S. Highway 62 to Missouri Highway 53; north on Missouri Highway 53 to Missouri Highway 51; north on Missouri Highway 51 to U.S. Highway 60; west on U.S. Highway 60 to Missouri Highway 21; north on Missouri Highway 21 to Missouri Highway 72; west on Missouri Highway 72 to Missouri Highway 32; west on Missouri Highway 32 to U.S. Highway 65; north on U.S. Highway 65 to U.S. Highway 54; west on U.S. Highway 54 to the Kansas State line.

Middle Zone: The remainder of Missouri.

Ohio

North Zone: That portion of the State north of a line extending east from the Indiana State line along U.S. Highway 33 to State Route 127, south along SR 127 to SR 703, south along SR 703 to SR 219, east along SR 219 to SR 364, north along SR 364 to SR 703, east along SR 703 to SR 66, north along SR 66 to U.S. 33, east along U.S. 33 to SR 385, east along SR 385 to SR 117, south along SR 117 to SR 273, east along SR 273 to SR 31, south along SR 31 to SR 739, east along SR 739 to SR 4, north along SR 4 to SR 95, east along SR 95 to SR 13, southeast along SR 13 to SR 3, northeast along SR 3 to SR 60, north along SR 60 to U.S. 30, east along U.S. 30 to SR 3, south along SR 3 to SR 226, south along SR 226 to SR 514, southwest along SR 514 to SR 754, south along SR 754 to SR 39/60, east along SR 39/60 to SR 241, north along SR 241 to U.S. 30, east along U.S. 30 to SR 39, east along SR 39 to the Pennsylvania State line.

South Zone: The remainder of Ohio.

Tennessee

Reelfoot Zone: All or portions of Lake and Obion Counties.

State Zone: The remainder of Tennessee.

Wisconsin

North Zone: That portion of the State north of a line extending east from the Minnesota State line along U.S. Highway 10 into Portage County to County Highway HH, east on County Highway HH to State Highway 66 and then east on State Highway 66 to U.S. Highway 10, continuing east on U.S. Highway 10 to U.S. Highway 41, then north on U.S. Highway 41 to the Michigan State line.

South Zone: The remainder of Wisconsin.

Central Flyway

Colorado (Central Flyway Portion)

Eastern Plains Zone: That portion of the State east of Interstate 25, and all of El Paso, Pueblo, Heurfano, and Las Animas Counties.

Mountain/Foothills Zone: That portion of the State west of Interstate 25 and east of the Continental Divide, except El Paso, Pueblo, Heurfano, and Las Animas Counties.

Kansas

High Plains Zone: That portion of the State west of U.S. 283.

Low Plains Early Zone: That area of Kansas east of U.S. 283, and generally west of a line beginning at the Junction of the Nebraska border and KS 28; south on KS 28 to U.S. 36; east on U.S. 36 to KS 199; south on KS 199 to Republic Co. Road 563; south on Republic Co. Road 563 to KS 148; east on KS 148 to Republic Co. Road 138; south on Republic Co. Road 138 to Cloud Co. Road 765; south on Cloud Co. Road 765 to KS 9; west on KS 9 to U.S. 24; west on U.S. 24 to U.S. 281; north on U.S. 281 to U.S. 36; west on U.S. 36 to U.S. 183; south on U.S. 183 to U.S. 24; west on U.S. 24 to KS 18; southeast on KS 18 to U.S. 183; south on U.S. 183 to KS 4; east on KS 4 to I-135; south on I-135 to KS 61; southwest on KS 61 to KS 96; northwest on KS 96 to U.S. 56; southwest on U.S. 56 to KS 19; east on KS 19 to U.S. 281; south on U.S. 281 to U.S. 54; west on U.S. 54 to U.S. 183; north on U.S. 183 to U.S. 56; southwest on U.S. 56 to Ford Co. Road 126; south on Ford Co. Road 126 to U.S. 400; northwest on U.S. 400 to U.S. 283.

Low Plains Late Zone: The remainder of Kansas.

Montana (Central Flyway Portion)

Zone 1: The Counties of Blaine, Carbon, Carter, Daniels, Dawson, Fallon, Fergus, Garfield, Golden Valley, Judith Basin, McCone, Musselshell, Petroleum, Phillips, Powder River, Richland, Roosevelt, Sheridan, Stillwater, Sweet Grass, Valley, Wheatland, Wibaux, and Yellowstone.

Zone 2: The remainder of Montana.

Nebraska

High Plains Zone: That portion of Nebraska lying west of a line beginning at the South Dakota-Nebraska border on U.S. 183, south on U.S. 183 to U.S. 20, west on U.S. 20 to NE 7, south on NE 7 to NE 91, southwest on NE 91 to NE 2, southeast on NE 2 to NE 92, west on NE 92 to NE 40, south on NE 40 to NE 47, south on NE 47 to NE 23, east on NE 23 to U.S. 283 and south on U.S. 283 to the Kansas-Nebraska border.

Low Plains Zone 1: That portion of Dixon County west of NE 26E Spur and north of NE 12; those portions of Cedar County north of NE 12; those portions of Knox County north of NE 12 to intersection of Niobrara River; all of Boyd County; Keya Paha County east of U.S. 183. Both banks of the Niobrara River in Keya Paha, Boyd, and Knox Counties east of U.S. 183 shall be included in Zone 1.

Low Plains Zone 2: Area bounded by designated Federal and State highways and political boundaries beginning at the Kansas-Nebraska border on U.S. 75 to U.S. 136; east to the intersection of U.S. 136 and the Steamboat Trace (Trace); north along the Trace to the intersection with Federal Levee R-562; north along Federal Levee R-562 to the intersection with the Trace; north along the Trace/Burlington Northern Railroad right-of-way to NE 2; west to U.S. 75; north to NE 2; west to NE 43; north to U.S. 34; east to NE 63; north and west to U.S. 77; north to NE 92; west to U.S. 81; south to NE 66; west to NE 14; south to County Road 22 (Hamilton County); west to County Road M; south to County Road 21; west to County Road K; south U.S. 34; west to NE 2; south to U.S. I-80; west to Gunbarrel Road (Hall/Hamilton county line); south to Giltner Road; west to U.S. 281; south to U.S. 34; west to NE 10; north to County Road “R” (Kearney County) and County Road #742 (Phelps County); west to County Road #438 (Gosper County line); south along County Road #438 (Gosper County line) to County Road #726 (Furnas County line); east to County Road #438 (Harlan County line); south to U.S. 34; south and west to U.S. 136; east to NE 14; south to the Kansas-Nebraska border; west to U.S. 283; north to NE 23; west to NE 47; north to U.S. 30; east to NE 14; north to NE 52; west and north to NE 91 to U.S. 281; south to NE 22; west to NE 11; northwest to NE 91; west to Loup County Line; north to Loup-Brown County line; east along northern boundaries of Loup, Garfield, and Wheeler Counties; south on the Wheeler-Antelope county line to NE 70; east to NE 14; south to NE 39; southeast to NE 22; east to U.S. 81; southeast to U.S. 30; east to U.S. 75; north to the Washington County line; east to the Iowa-Nebraska border; south along the Iowa-Nebraska border; to the beginning at U.S. 75 and the Kansas-Nebraska border.

Low Plains Zone 3: The area east of the High Plains Zone, excluding Low Plains Zone 1, north of Low Plains Zone 2.

Low Plains Zone 4: The area east of the High Plains Zone and south of Zone 2.

New Mexico (Central Flyway Portion)

North Zone: That portion of the State north of I-40 and U.S. 54.

South Zone: The remainder of New Mexico.

North Dakota

High Plains Unit: That portion of the State south and west of a line from the South Dakota State line along U.S. 83 and I-94 to ND 41, north to U.S. 2, west to the Williams/Divide County line, then north along the County line to the Canadian border.

Low Plains Unit: The remainder of North Dakota.

Oklahoma

High Plains Zone: The Counties of Beaver, Cimarron, and Texas.

Low Plains Zone 1: That portion of the State east of the High Plains Zone and north of a line extending east from the Texas State line along OK 33 to OK 47, east along OK 47 to U.S. 183, south along U.S.183 to I-40, east along I-40 to U.S. 177, north along U.S. 177 to OK 33, east along OK 33 to OK 18, north along OK 18 to OK 51, west along OK 51 to I-35, north along I-35 to U.S. 412, west along U.S. 412 to OK 132, then north along OK 132 to the Kansas State line.

Low Plains Zone 2: The remainder of Oklahoma.

South Dakota

High Plains Zone: That portion of the State west of a line beginning at the North Dakota State line and extending south along U.S. 83 to U.S.14, east on U.S.14 to Blunt, south on the Blunt-Canning road to SD 34, east and south on SD 34 to SD 50 at Lee's Corner, south on SD 50 to I-90, east on I-90 to SD 50, south on SD 50 to SD 44, west on SD 44 across the Platte-Winner bridge to SD 47, south on SD 47 to U.S.18, east on U.S. 18 to SD 47, south on SD 47 to the Nebraska State line.

North Zone: That portion of northeastern South Dakota east of the High Plains Unit and north of a line extending east along U.S. 212 to the Minnesota State line.

South Zone: That portion of Gregory County east of SD 47 and south of SD 44; Charles Mix County south of SD 44 to the Douglas County line; south on SD 50 to Geddes; east on the Geddes Highway to U.S. 281; south on U.S. 281 and U.S. 18 to SD 50; south and east on SD 50 to the Bon Homme County line; the Counties of Bon Homme, Yankton, and Clay south of SD 50; and Union County south and west of SD 50 and I-29.

Middle Zone: The remainder of South Dakota.

Texas

High Plains Zone: That portion of the State west of a line extending south from the Oklahoma State line along U.S. 183 to Vernon, south along U.S. 283 to Albany, south along TX 6 to TX 351 to Abilene, south along U.S. 277 to Del Rio, then south along the Del Rio International Toll Bridge access road to the Mexico border.

Low Plains North Zone: That portion of northeastern Texas east of the High Plains Zone and north of a line beginning at the International Toll Bridge south of Del Rio, then extending east on U.S. 90 to San Antonio, then continuing east on I-10 to the Louisiana State line at Orange, Texas.

Low Plains South Zone: The remainder of Texas.

Wyoming (Central Flyway Portion)

Zone C1: The Counties of Converse, Goshen, Hot Springs, Natrona, Platte, and Washakie; and the portion of Park County east of the Shoshone National Forest boundary and south of a line beginning where the Shoshone National Forest boundary meets Park County Road 8VC, east along Park County Road 8VC to Park County Road 1AB, continuing east along Park County Road 1AB to Wyoming Highway 120, north along WY Highway 120 to WY Highway 294, south along WY Highway 294 to Lane 9, east along Lane 9 to Powel and WY Highway 14A, and finally east along WY Highway 14A to the Park County and Big Horn County line.

Zone C2: The remainder of Wyoming.

Pacific Flyway

Arizona

Game Management Units (GMU) as follows:

South Zone: Those portions of GMUs 6 and 8 in Yavapai County, and GMUs 10 and 12B-45.

North Zone: GMUs 1-5, those portions of GMUs 6 and 8 within Coconino County, and GMUs 7, 9, 12A.

California

Northeastern Zone: In that portion of California lying east and north of a line beginning at the intersection of Interstate 5 with the California-Oregon line; south along Interstate 5 to its junction with Walters Lane south of the town of Yreka; west along Walters Lane to its junction with Easy Street; south along Easy Street to the junction with Old Highway 99; south along Old Highway 99 to the point of intersection with Interstate 5 north of the town of Weed; south along Interstate 5 to its junction with Highway 89; east and south along Highway 89 to Main Street Greenville; north and east to its junction with North Valley Road; south to its junction of Diamond Mountain Road; north and east to its junction with North Arm Road; south and west to the junction of North Valley Road; south to the junction with Arlington Road (A22); west to the junction of Highway 89; south and west to the junction of Highway 70; east on Highway 70 to Highway 395; south and east on Highway 395 to the point of intersection with the California-Nevada State line; north along the California-Nevada State line to the junction of the California-Nevada-Oregon State lines; west along the California-Oregon State line to the point of origin.

Colorado River Zone: Those portions of San Bernardino, Riverside, and Imperial Counties east of a line extending from the Nevada State line south along U.S. 95 to Vidal Junction; south on a road known as “Aqueduct Road” in San Bernardino County through the town of Rice to the San Bernardino-Riverside County line; south on a road known in Riverside County as the “Desert Center to Rice Road” to the town of Desert Center; east 31 miles on I-10 to the Wiley Well Road; south on this road to Wiley Well; southeast along the Army-Milpitas Road to the Blythe, Brawley, Davis Lake intersections; south on the Blythe-Brawley paved road to the Ogilby and Tumco Mine Road; south on this road to U.S. 80; east 7 miles on U.S. 80 to the Andrade-Algodones Road; south on this paved road to the Mexican border at Algodones, Mexico.

Southern Zone: That portion of southern California (but excluding the Colorado River Zone) south and east of a line extending from the Pacific Ocean east along the Santa Maria River to CA 166 near the City of Santa Maria; east on CA 166 to CA 99; south on CA 99 to the crest of the Tehachapi Mountains at Tejon Pass; east and north along the crest of the Tehachapi Mountains to CA 178 at Walker Pass; east on CA 178 to U.S. 395 at the town of Inyokern; south on U.S. 395 to CA 58; east on CA 58 to I-15; east on I-15 to CA 127; north on CA 127 to the Nevada State line.

Southern San Joaquin Valley Temporary Zone: All of Kings and Tulare Counties and that portion of Kern County north of the Southern Zone.

Balance-of-State Zone: The remainder of California not included in theNortheastern, Southern, and Colorado River Zones, and the Southern San Joaquin Valley Temporary Zone.

Idaho

Zone 1: Includes all lands and waters within the Fort Hall Indian Reservation, including private inholdings; Bannock County; Bingham County, except that portion within the Blackfoot Reservoir drainage; and Power County east of ID 37 and ID 39.

Zone 2: Includes the following Counties or portions of Counties: Adams; Bear Lake; Benewah; Bingham within the Blackfoot Reservoir drainage; Blaine; Bonner; Bonneville; Boundary; Butte; Camas; Caribou except the Fort Hall Indian Reservation; Cassia within the Minidoka National Wildlife Refuge; Clark; Clearwater; Custer; Elmore within the Camas Creek drainage; Franklin; Fremont; Idaho; Jefferson; Kootenai; Latah; Lemhi; Lewis; Madison; Nez Perce; Oneida; Power within the Minidoka National Wildlife Refuge; Shoshone; Teton; and Valley Counties.

Zone 3: Includes the following Counties or portions of Counties: Ada; Boise; Canyon; Cassia except within the Minidoka National Wildlife Refuge; Elmore except the Camas Creek drainage; Gem; Gooding; Jerome; Lincoln; Minidoka; Owyhee; Payette; Power west of ID 37 and ID 39 except that portion within the Minidoka National Wildlife Refuge; Twin Falls; and Washington Counties.

Nevada

Lincoln and Clark County Zone: All of Clark and Lincoln Counties.

Remainder-of-the-State Zone: The remainder of Nevada.

Oregon

Zone 1: Clatsop, Tillamook, Lincoln, Lane, Douglas, Coos, Curry, Josephine, Jackson, Linn, Benton, Polk, Marion, Yamhill, Washington, Columbia, Multnomah, Clackamas, Hood River, Wasco, Sherman, Gilliam, Morrow and Umatilla Counties.

Columbia Basin Mallard Management Unit: Gilliam, Morrow, and Umatilla Counties.

Zone 2: The remainder of the State.

Utah

Zone 1: All of Box Elder, Cache, Daggett, Davis, Duchesne, Morgan, Rich, Salt Lake, Summit, Unitah, Utah, Wasatch, and Weber Counties, and that part of Toole County north of I-80.

Zone 2: The remainder of Utah.

Washington

East Zone: All areas east of the Pacific Crest Trail and east of the Big White Salmon River in Klickitat County.

Columbia Basin Mallard Management Unit: Same as East Zone.

West Zone: All areas to the west of the East Zone.

Wyoming

Snake River Zone: Beginning at the south boundary of Yellowstone National Park and the Continental Divide; south along the Continental Divide to Union Pass and the Union Pass Road (U.S.F.S. Road 600); west and south along the Union Pass Road to U.S.F.S. Road 605; south along U.S.F.S. Road 605 to the Bridger-Teton National Forest boundary; along the national forest boundary to the Idaho State line; north along the Idaho State line to the south boundary of Yellowstone National Park; east along the Yellowstone National Park boundary to the Continental Divide.

Balance of State Zone: Balance of the Pacific Flyway in Wyoming outside the Snake River Zone.

Geese

Atlantic Flyway

Connecticut

AP Unit: Litchfield County and the portion of Hartford County west of a line beginning at the Massachusetts border in Suffield and extending south along Route 159 to its intersection with Route 91 in Hartford, and then extending south along Route 91 to its intersection with the Hartford/Middlesex County line.

AFRP Unit: Starting at the intersection of I-95 and the Quinnipiac River, north on the Quinnipiac River to its intersection with I-91, north on I-91 to I-691, west on I-691 to the Hartford County line, and encompassing the rest of New Haven County and Fairfield County in its entirety.

NAP H-Unit: All of the rest of the State not included in the AP or AFRP descriptions above.

South Zone: Same as for ducks.

North Zone: Same as for ducks.

Maryland

Resident Population (RP) Zone: Garrett, Allegany, Washington, Frederick, and Montgomery Counties; that portion of Prince George's County west of Route 3 and Route 301; that portion of Charles County west of Route 301 to the Virginia State line; and that portion of Carroll County west of Route 31 to the intersection of Route 97, and west of Route 97 to the Pennsylvania line.

AP Zone: Remainder of the State.

Massachusetts

NAP Zone: Central and Coastal Zones (see duck zones).

AP Zone: The Western Zone (see duck zones).

Special Late Season Area: The Central Zone and that portion of the Coastal Zone (see duck zones) that lies north of the Cape Cod Canal, north to the New Hampshire line.

New Hampshire

Same zones as for ducks.

New Jersey

North: That portion of the State within a continuous line that runs east along the New York State boundary line to the Hudson River; then south along the New York State boundary to its intersection with Route 440 at Perth Amboy; then west on Route 440 to its intersection with Route 287; then west along Route 287 to its intersection with Route 206 in Bedminster (Exit 18); then north along Route 206 to its intersection with Route 94: then west along Route 94 to the tollbridge in Columbia; then north along the Pennsylvania State boundary in the Delaware River to the beginning point.

South: That portion of the State within a continuous line that runs west from the Atlantic Ocean at Ship Bottom along Route 72 to Route 70; then west along Route 70 to Route 206; then south along Route 206 to Route 536; then west along Route 536 to Route 322; then west along Route 322 to Route 55; then south along Route 55 to Route 553 (Buck Road); then south along Route 553 to Route 40; then east along Route 40 to route 55; then south along Route 55 to Route 552 (Sherman Avenue); then west along Route 552 to Carmel Road; then south along Carmel Road to Route 49; then east along Route 49 to Route 555; then south along Route 555 to Route 553; then east along Route 553 to Route 649; then north along Route 649 to Route 670; then east along Route 670 to Route 47; then north along Route 47 to Route 548; then east along Route 548 to Route 49; then east along Route 49 to Route 50; then south along Route 50 to Route 9; then south along Route 9 to Route 625 (Sea Isle City Boulevard); then east along Route 625 to the Atlantic Ocean; then north to the beginning point.

New York

Lake Champlain Goose Area: The same as the Lake Champlain Waterfowl Hunting Zone, which is that area of New York State lying east and north of a continuous line extending along Route 11 from the New York-Canada International boundary south to Route 9B, south along Route 9B to Route 9, south along Route 9 to Route 22 south of Keeseville, south along Route 22 tothe west shore of South Bay along and around the shoreline of South Bay to Route 22 on the east shore of South Bay, southeast along Route 22 to Route 4, northeast along Route 4 to the New York-Vermont boundary.

Northeast Goose Area: The same as the Northeastern Waterfowl Hunting Zone, which is that area of New York State lying north of a continuous line extending from Lake Ontario east along the north shore of the Salmon River to Interstate 81, south along Interstate Route 81 to Route 31, east along Route 31 to Route 13, north along Route 13 to Route 49, east along Route 49 to Route 365, east along Route 365 to Route 28, east along Route 28 to Route 29, east along Route 29 to Interstate Route 87, north along Interstate Route 87 to Route 9 (at Exit 20), north along Route 9 to Route 149, east along Route 149 to Route 4, north along Route 4 to the New York-Vermont boundary, exclusive of the Lake Champlain Zone.

East Central Goose Area: That area of New York State lying inside of a continuous line extending from Interstate Route 81 in Cicero, east along Route 31 to Route 13, north along Route 13 to Route 49, east along Route 49 to Route 365, east along Route 365 to Route 28, east along Route 28 to Route 29, east along Route 29 to Route 147 at Kimball Corners, south along Route 147 to Schenectady County Route 40 (West Glenville Road), west along Route 40 to Touareuna Road, south along Touareuna Road to Schenectady County Route 59, south along Route 59 to State Route 5, east along Route 5 to the Lock 9 bridge, southwest along the Lock 9 bridge to Route 5S, southeast along Route 5S to Schenectady County Route 58, southwest along Route 58 to the NYS Thruway, south along the Thruway to Route 7, southwest along Route 7 to Schenectady County Route 103, south along Route 103 to Route 406, east along Route 406 to Schenectady County Route 99 (Windy Hill Road), south along Route 99 to Dunnsville Road, south along Dunnsville Road to Route 397, southwest along Route 397 to Route 146 at Altamont, west along Route 146 to Albany County Route 252, northwest along Route 252 to Schenectady County Route 131, north along Route 131 to Route 7, west along Route 7 to Route 10 at Richmondville, south on Route 10 to Route 23 at Stamford, west along Route 23 to Route 7 in Oneonta, southwest along Route 7 to Route 79 to Interstate Route 88 near Harpursville, west along Route 88 to Interstate Route 81, north along Route 81 to the point of beginning.

West Central Goose Area: That area of New York State lying within a continuous line beginning at the point where the northerly extension of Route 269 (County Line Road on the Niagara-Orleans County boundary) meets the International boundary with Canada, south to the shore of Lake Ontario at the eastern boundary of Golden Hill State Park, south along the extension of Route 269 and Route 269 to Route 104 at Jeddo, west along Route 104 to Niagara County Route 271, south along Route 271 to Route 31E at Middleport, south along Route 31E to Route 31, west along Route 31 to Griswold Street, south along Griswold Street to Ditch Road, south along Ditch Road to Foot Road, south along Foot Road to the north bank of Tonawanda Creek, west along the north bank of Tonawanda Creek to Route 93, south along Route 93 to Route 5, east along Route 5 to Crittenden-Murrays Corners Road, south on Crittenden-Murrays Corners Road to the NYS Thruway, east along the Thruway 90 to Route 98 (at Thruway Exit 48) in Batavia, south along Route 98 to Route 20, east along Route 20 to Route 19 in Pavilion Center, south along Route 19 to Route 63, southeast along Route 63 to Route 246, south along Route 246 to Route 39 in Perry, northeast along Route 39 to Route 20A, northeast along Route 20A to Route 20, east along Route 20 to Route 364 (near Canandaigua), south and east along Route 364 to Yates County Route 18 (Italy Valley Road), southwest along Route 18 to Yates County Route 34, east along Route 34 to Yates County Route 32, south along Route 32 to Steuben County Route 122, south along Route 122 to Route 53, south along Route 53 to Steuben County Route 74, east along Route 74 to Route 54A (near Pulteney), south along Route 54A to Steuben County Route 87, east along Route 87 to Steuben County Route 96, east along Route 96 to Steuben County Route 114, east along Route 114 to Schuyler County Route 23, east and southeast along Route 23 to Schuyler County Route 28, southeast along Route 28 to Route 409 at Watkins Glen, south along Route 409 to Route 14, south along Route 14 to Route 224 at Montour Falls, east along Route 224 to Route 228 in Odessa, north along Route 228 to Route 79 in Mecklenburg, east along Route 79 to Route 366 in Ithaca, northeast along Route 366 to Route 13, northeast along Route 13 to Interstate Route 81 in Cortland, north along Route 81 to the north shore of the Salmon River to shore of Lake Ontario, extending generally northwest in a straight line to the nearest point of the International boundary with Canada, south and west along the International boundary to the point of beginning.

Hudson Valley Goose Area: That area of New York State lying within a continuous line extending from Route 4 at the New York-Vermont boundary, west and south along Route 4 to Route 149 at Fort Ann, west on Route 149 to Route 9, south along Route 9 to Interstate Route 87 (at Exit 20 in Glens Falls), south along Route 87 to Route 29, west along Route 29 to Route 147 at Kimball Corners, south along Route 147 to Schenectady County Route 40 (West Glenville Road), west along Route 40 to Touareuna Road, south along Touareuna Road to Schenectady County Route 59, south along Route 59 to State Route 5, east along Route 5 to the Lock 9 bridge, southwest along the Lock 9 bridge to Route 5S, southeast along Route 5S to Schenectady County Route 58, southwest along Route 58 to the NYS Thruway, south along the Thruway to Route 7, southwest along Route 7 to Schenectady County Route 103, south along Route 103 to Route 406, east along Route 406 to Schenectady County Route 99 (Windy Hill Road), south along Route 99 to Dunnsville Road, south along Dunnsville Road to Route 397, southwest along Route 397 to Route 146 at Altamont, southeast along Route 146 to Main Street in Altamont, west along Main Street to Route 156, southeast along Route 156 to Albany County Route 307, southeast along Route 307 to Route 85A, southwest along Route 85A to Route 85, south along Route 85 to Route 443, southeast along Route 443 to Albany County Route 301 at Clarksville, southeast along Route 301 to Route 32, south along Route 32 to Route 23 at Cairo, west along Route 23 to Joseph Chadderdon Road, southeast along Joseph Chadderdon Road to Hearts Content Road (Greene County Route 31), southeast along Route 31 to Route 32, south along Route 32 to Greene County Route 23A, east along Route 23A to Interstate Route 87 (the NYS Thruway), south along Route 87 to Route 28 (Exit 19) near Kingston, northwest on Route 28 to Route 209, southwest on Route 209 to the New York-Pennsylvania boundary, southeast along the New York-Pennsylvania boundary to the New York-New Jersey boundary, southeast along the New York-New Jersey boundary to Route 210 near Greenwood Lake, northeast along Route 210 to Orange County Route 5, northeast along Orange County Route 5 to Route 105 in the Village of Monroe, east and north along Route 105 to Route 32, northeast along Route 32 to Orange County Route 107 (Quaker Avenue), east along Route 107 to Route 9W, north along Route 9W to the south bank of Moodna Creek, southeast along the south bank ofMoodna Creek to the New Windsor-Cornwall town boundary, northeast along the New Windsor-Cornwall town boundary to the Orange-Dutchess County boundary (middle of the Hudson River), north along the county boundary to Interstate Route 84, east along Route 84 to the Dutchess-Putnam County boundary, east along the county boundary to the New York-Connecticut boundary, north along the New York-Connecticut boundary to the New York-Massachusetts boundary, north along the New York-Massachusetts boundary to the New York-Vermont boundary, north to the point of beginning.

Eastern Long Island Goose Area (NAP High Harvest Area): That area of Suffolk County lying east of a continuous line extending due south from the New York-Connecticut boundary to the northernmost end of Roanoke Avenue in the Town of Riverhead; then south on Roanoke Avenue (which becomes County Route 73) to State Route 25; then west on Route 25 to Peconic Avenue; then south on Peconic Avenue to County Route (CR) 104 (Riverleigh Avenue); then south on CR 104 to CR 31 (Old Riverhead Road); then south on CR 31 to Oak Street; then south on Oak Street to Potunk Lane; then west on Stevens Lane; then south on Jessup Avenue (in Westhampton Beach) to Dune Road (CR 89); then due south to international waters.

Western Long Island Goose Area (RP Area): That area of Westchester County and its tidal waters southeast of Interstate Route 95 and that area of Nassau and Suffolk Counties lying west of a continuous line extending due south from the New York-Connecticut boundary to the northernmost end of the Sunken Meadow State Parkway; then south on the Sunken Meadow Parkway to the Sagtikos State Parkway; then south on the Sagtikos Parkway to the Robert Moses State Parkway; then south on the Robert Moses Parkway to its southernmost end; then due south to international waters.

Central Long Island Goose Area (NAP Low Harvest Area): That area of Suffolk County lying between the Western and Eastern Long Island Goose Areas, as defined above.

South Goose Area: The remainder of New York State, excluding New York City.

Special Late Canada Goose Area: That area of the Central Long Island Goose Area lying north of State Route 25A and west of a continuous line extending northward from State Route 25A along Randall Road (near Shoreham) to North Country Road, then east to Sound Road and then north to Long Island Sound and then due north to the New York-Connecticut boundary.

North Carolina

SJBP Hunt Zone: Includes the following Counties or portions of Counties: Anson, Cabarrus, Chatham, Davidson, Durham, Halifax (that portion east of NC 903), Montgomery (that portion west of NC 109), Northampton, Richmond (that portion south of NC 73 and west of US 220 and north of US 74), Rowan, Stanly, Union, and Wake.

RP Hunt Zone: Includes the following Counties or portions of Counties: Alamance, Alleghany, Alexander, Ashe, Avery, Beaufort, Bertie (that portion south and west of a line formed by NC 45 at the Washington Co. line to US 17 in Midway, US 17 in Midway to US 13 in Windsor, US 13 in Windsor to the Hertford Co. line), Bladen, Brunswick, Buncombe, Burke, Caldwell, Carteret, Caswell, Catawba, Cherokee, Clay, Cleveland, Columbus, Craven, Cumberland, Davie, Duplin, Edgecombe, Forsyth, Franklin, Gaston, Gates, Graham, Granville, Greene, Guilford, Halifax (that portion west of NC 903), Harnett, Haywood, Henderson, Hertford, Hoke, Iredell, Jackson, Johnston, Jones, Lee, Lenoir, Lincoln, McDowell, Macon, Madison, Martin, Mecklenburg, Mitchell, Montgomery (that portion that is east of NC 109), Moore, Nash, New Hanover, Onslow, Orange, Pamlico, Pender, Person, Pitt, Polk, Randolph, Richmond (all of the county with exception of that portion that is south of NC 73 and west of US 220 and north of US 74), Robeson, Rockingham, Rutherford, Sampson, Scotland, Stokes, Surry, Swain, Transylvania, Vance, Warren, Watauga, Wayne, Wilkes, Wilson, Yadkin, and Yancey.

Northeast Hunt Unit: Includes the following Counties or portions of Counties: Bertie (that portion north and east of a line formed by NC 45 at the Washington County line to US 17 in Midway, US 17 in Midway to US 13 in Windsor, US 13 in Windsor to the Hertford Co. line), Camden, Chowan, Currituck, Dare, Hyde, Pasquotank, Perquimans, Tyrrell, and Washington.

Pennsylvania

Resident Canada Goose Zone: All of Pennsylvania except for SJBP Zone and the area east of route SR 97 from the Maryland State Line to the intersection of SR 194, east of SR 194 to intersection of US Route 30, south of US Route 30 to SR 441, east of SR 441 to SR 743, east of SR 743 to intersection of I-81, east of I-81 to intersection of I-80, and south of I-80 to the New Jersey State line.

SJBP Zone: The area north of I-80 and west of I-79 including in the city of Erie west of Bay Front Parkway to and including the Lake Erie Duck zone (Lake Erie, Presque Isle, and the area within 150 yards of the Lake Erie Shoreline).

AP Zone: The area east of route SR 97 from Maryland State Line to the intersection of SR 194, east of SR 194 to intersection of US Route 30, south of US Route 30 to SR 441, east of SR 441 to SR 743, east of SR 743 to intersection of I-81, east of I-81 to intersection of I-80, south of I-80 to New Jersey State line.

Rhode Island

Special Area for Canada Geese: Kent and Providence Counties and portions of the towns of Exeter and North Kingston within Washington County (see State regulations for detailed descriptions).

South Carolina

Canada Goose Area: Statewide except for Clarendon County, that portion of Orangeburg County north of SC Highway 6, and that portion of Berkeley County north of SC Highway 45 from the Orangeburg County line to the junction of SC Highway 45 and State Road S-8-31 and that portion west of the Santee Dam.

Vermont

Same zones as for ducks.

Virginia

AP Zone: The area east and south of the following line—the Stafford County line from the Potomac River west to Interstate 95 at Fredericksburg, then south along Interstate 95 to Petersburg, then Route 460 (SE) to City of Suffolk, then south along Route 32 to the North Carolina line.

SJBP Zone: The area to the west of the AP Zone boundary and east of the following line: the “Blue Ridge” (mountain spine) at the West Virginia-Virginia Border (Loudoun County-Clarke County line) south to Interstate 64 (the Blue Ridge line follows county borders along the western edge of Loudoun-Fauquier-Rappahannock-Madison-Greene-Albemarle and into Nelson Counties), then east along Interstate Rt. 64 to Route 15, then south along Rt. 15 to the North Carolina line.

RP Zone: The remainder of the State west of the SJBP Zone.

West Virginia

Same zones as for ducks.

Mississippi Flyway

Alabama

Same zones as for ducks, but in addition:

SJBP Zone: That portion of Morgan County east of U.S. Highway 31, northof State Highway 36, and west of U.S. 231; that portion of Limestone County south of U.S. 72; and that portion of Madison County south of Swancott Road and west of Triana Road.

Arkansas

Northwest Zone: Baxter, Benton, Boone, Carroll, Conway, Crawford, Faulkner, Franklin, Johnson, Logan, Madison, Marion, Newton, Perry, Pope, Pulaski, Searcy, Sebastian, Scott, Van Buren, Washington, and Yell Counties.

Illinois

Same zones as for ducks.

Indiana

Same zones as for ducks but in addition:

Special Canada Goose Seasons

Indiana Late Canada Goose Season Zone: That part of the State encompassed by the following Counties: Steuben, Lagrange, Elkhart, St. Joseph, La Porte, Starke, Marshall, Kosciusko, Noble, De Kalb, Allen, Whitley, Huntington, Wells, Adams, Boone, Hamilton, Madison, Hendricks, Marion, Hancock, Morgan, Johnson, Shelby, Vermillion, Parke, Vigo, Clay, Sullivan, and Greene.

Iowa

Same zones as for ducks.

Kentucky

Western Zone: That portion of the State west of a line beginning at the Tennessee State line at Fulton and extending north along the Purchase Parkway to Interstate Highway 24, east along I-24 to U.S. Highway 641, north along U.S. 641 to U.S. 60, northeast along U.S. 60 to the Henderson County line, then south, east, and northerly along the Henderson County line to the Indiana State line.

Ballard Reporting Area: That area encompassed by a line beginning at the northwest city limits of Wickliffe in Ballard County and extending westward to the middle of the Mississippi River, north along the Mississippi River and along the low-water mark of the Ohio River on the Illinois shore to the Ballard-McCracken County line, south along the county line to Kentucky Highway 358, south along Kentucky 358 to U.S. Highway 60 at LaCenter, then southwest along U.S. 60 to the northeast city limits of Wickliffe.

Henderson-Union Reporting Area: Henderson County and that portion of Union County within the Western Zone.

Pennyroyal/Coalfield Zone: Butler, Daviess, Ohio, Simpson, and Warren Counties and all counties lying west to the boundary of the Western Goose Zone.

Michigan

(a) North Zone—Same as North duck zone.

(b) Middle Zone—Same as Middle duck zone.

(c) South Zone—Same as South duck zone.

Tuscola/Huron Goose Management Unit (GMU): Those portions of Tuscola and Huron Counties bounded on the south by Michigan Highway 138 and Bay City Road, on the east by Colwood and Bay Port Roads, on the north by Kilmanagh Road and a line extending directly west off the end of Kilmanagh Road into Saginaw Bay to the west boundary, and on the west by the Tuscola-Bay County line and a line extending directly north off the end of the Tuscola-Bay County line into Saginaw Bay to the north boundary.

Allegan County GMU: That area encompassed by a line beginning at the junction of 136th Avenue and Interstate Highway 196 in Lake Town Township and extending easterly along 136th Avenue to Michigan Highway 40, southerly along Michigan 40 through the city of Allegan to 108th Avenue in Trowbridge Township, westerly along 108th Avenue to 46th Street, northerly along 46th Street to 109th Avenue, westerly along 109th Avenue to I-196 in Casco Township, then northerly along I-196 to the point of beginning.

Saginaw County GMU: That portion of Saginaw County bounded by Michigan Highway 46 on the north; Michigan 52 on the west; Michigan 57 on the south; and Michigan 13 on the east.

Muskegon Wastewater GMU: That portion of Muskegon County within the boundaries of the Muskegon County wastewater system, east of the Muskegon State Game Area, in sections 5, 6, 7, 8, 17, 18, 19, 20, 29, 30, and 32, T10N R14W, and sections 1, 2, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 24, and 25, T10N R15W, as posted.

Special Canada Goose Seasons

Southern Michigan Late Season Canada Goose Zone: Same as the South Duck Zone excluding Tuscola/Huron Goose Management Unit (GMU), Allegan County GMU, Saginaw County GMU, and Muskegon Wastewater GMU.

Minnesota

Rochester Goose Zone: That part of the State within the following described boundary:

Beginning at the intersection of State Trunk Highway (STH) 247 and County State Aid Highway (CSAH) 4, Wabasha County; thence along CSAH 4 to CSAH 10, Olmsted County; thence along CSAH 10 to CSAH 9, Olmsted County; thence along CSAH 9 to CSAH 22, Winona County; thence along CSAH 22 to STH 74; thence along STH 74 to STH 30; thence along STH 30 to CSAH 13, Dodge County; thence along CSAH 13 to U.S. Highway 14; thence along U.S. Highway 14 to STH 57; thence along STH 57 to CSAH 24, Dodge County; thence along CSAH 24 to CSAH 13, Olmsted County; thence along CSAH 13 to U.S. Highway 52; thence along U.S. Highway 52 to CSAH 12, Olmsted County; thence along CSAH 12 to STH 247; thence along STH 247 to the point of beginning.

Missouri

Same zones as for ducks.

Ohio

Same zones as for ducks but in addition:

North Zone

Lake Erie Zone: That portion of the North Duck Zone encompassed by and north and east of a line beginning in Lucas County at the Michigan State line on I-75, and extending south along I-75 to I-280, south along I-280 to I-80, and east along I- 80 to the Pennsylvania State line in Trumbull County.

Tennessee

Southwest Zone: That portion of the State south of State Highways 20 and 104, and west of U.S. Highways 45 and 45W.

Northwest Zone: Lake, Obion, and Weakley Counties and those portions of Gibson and Dyer Counties not included in the Southwest Tennessee Zone.

Kentucky/Barkley Lakes Zone: That portion of the State bounded on the west by the eastern boundaries of the Northwest and Southwest Zones and on the east by State Highway 13 from the Alabama State line to Clarksville and U.S. Highway 79 from Clarksville to the Kentucky State line.

Wisconsin

Same zones as for ducks but in addition:

Horicon Zone: That area encompassed by a line beginning at the intersection of State Highway 21 and the Fox River in Winnebago County and extending westerly along State 21 to the west boundary of Winnebago County, southerly along the west boundary of Winnebago County to the north boundary of Green Lake County, westerly along the north boundaries of Green Lake and Marquette Counties to State 22, southerly along State 22 to State 33, westerly along State 33 toInterstate Highway 39, southerly along Interstate Highway 39 to Interstate Highway 90/94, southerly along I-90/94 to State 60, easterly along State 60 to State 83, northerly along State 83 to State 175, northerly along State 175 to State 33, easterly along State 33 to U.S. Highway 45, northerly along U.S. 45 to the east shore of the Fond Du Lac River, northerly along the east shore of the Fond Du Lac River to Lake Winnebago, northerly along the western shoreline of Lake Winnebago to the Fox River, then westerly along the Fox River to State 21.

Collins Zone: That area encompassed by a line beginning at the intersection of Hilltop Road and Collins Marsh Road in Manitowoc County and extending westerly along Hilltop Road to Humpty Dumpty Road, southerly along Humpty Dumpty Road to Poplar Grove Road, easterly along Poplar Grove Road to Rockea Road, southerly along Rockea Road to County Highway JJ, southeasterly along County JJ to Collins Road, southerly along Collins Road to the Manitowoc River, southeasterly along the Manitowoc River to Quarry Road, northerly along Quarry Road to Einberger Road, northerly along Einberger Road to Moschel Road, westerly along Moschel Road to Collins Marsh Road, northerly along Collins Marsh Road to Hilltop Road.

Exterior Zone: That portion of the State not included in the Horicon or Collins Zones.

Mississippi River Subzone: That area encompassed by a line beginning at the intersection of the Burlington Northern & Santa Fe Railway and the Illinois State line in Grant County and extending northerly along the Burlington Northern & Santa Fe Railway to the city limit of Prescott in Pierce County, then west along the Prescott city limit to the Minnesota State line.

Brown County Subzone: That area encompassed by a line beginning at the intersection of the Fox River with Green Bay in Brown County and extending southerly along the Fox River to State Highway 29, northwesterly along State 29 to the Brown County line, south, east, and north along the Brown County line to Green Bay, due west to the midpoint of the Green Bay Ship Channel, then southwesterly along the Green Bay Ship Channel to the Fox River.

Central Flyway

Colorado (Central Flyway Portion)

Northern Front Range Area: All areas in Boulder, Larimer and Weld Counties from the Continental Divide east along the Wyoming border to U.S. 85, south on U.S. 85 to the Adams County line, and all lands in Adams, Arapahoe, Broomfield, Clear Creek, Denver, Douglas, Gilpin, and Jefferson Counties.

North Park Area: Jackson County.

South Park and San Luis Valley Area: All of Alamosa, Chaffee, Conejos, Costilla, Custer, Fremont, Lake, Park, Rio Grande and Teller Counties, and those portions of Saguache, Mineral and Hinsdale Counties east of the Continental Divide.

Remainder: Remainder of the Central Flyway portion of Colorado.

Eastern Colorado Late Light Goose Area: That portion of the State east of Interstate Highway 25.

Nebraska

Dark Geese

Niobrara Unit: That area contained within and bounded by the intersection of the South Dakota State line and the Cherry County line, south along the Cherry County line to the Niobrara River, east to the Norden Road, south on the Norden Road to U.S. Hwy 20, east along U.S. Hwy 20 to NE Hwy 137, north along NE Hwy 137 to the Niobrara River, east along the Niobrara River to the Boyd County line, north along the Boyd County line to the South Dakota State line. Where the Niobrara River forms the boundary, both banks of the river are included in the Niobrara Unit.

East Unit: That area north and east of U.S. 281 at the Kansas-Nebraska State line, north to Giltner Road (near Doniphan), east to NE 14, north to NE 66, east to U.S. 81, north to NE 22, west to NE 14 north to NE 91, east to U.S. 275, south to U.S. 77, south to NE 91, east to U.S. 30, east to Nebraska-Iowa State line.

Platte River Unit: That area south and west of U.S. 281 at the Kansas-Nebraska State line, north to Giltner Road (near Doniphan), east to NE 14, north to NE 66, east to U.S. 81, north to NE 22, west to NE 14 north to NE 91, west along NE 91 to NE 11, north to the Holt County line, west along the northern border of Garfield, Loup, Blaine and Thomas Counties to the Hooker County line, south along the Thomas-Hooker County lines to the McPherson County line, east along the south border of Thomas County to the western line of Custer County, south along the Custer-Logan County line to NE 92, west to U.S. 83, north to NE 92, west to NE 61, north along NE 61 to NE 2, west along NE 2 to the corner formed by Garden-Grant-Sheridan Counties, west along the north border of Garden, Morrill, and Scotts Bluff Counties to the intersection of the Interstate Canal, west to Wyoming State line.

North-Central Unit: The remainder of the State.

Light Geese

Rainwater Basin Light Goose Area (West): The area bounded by the junction of U.S. 283 and U.S. 30 at Lexington, east on U.S. 30 to U.S. 281, south on U.S. 281 to NE 4, west on NE 4 to U.S. 34, continue west on U.S. 34 to U.S. 283, then north on U.S. 283 to the beginning.

Rainwater Basin Light Goose Area (East): The area bounded by the junction of U.S. 281 and U.S. 30 at Grand Island, north and east on U.S. 30 to NE 14, south to NE 66, east to U.S. 81, north to NE 92, east on NE 92 to NE 15, south on NE 15 to NE 4, west on NE 4 to U.S. 281, north on U.S. 281 to the beginning.

Remainder of State: The remainder portion of Nebraska.

New Mexico (Central Flyway Portion)

Dark Geese

Middle Rio Grande Valley Unit: Sierra, Socorro, and Valencia Counties.

Remainder: The remainder of the Central Flyway portion of New Mexico.

North Dakota

Missouri River Canada Goose Zone: The area within and bounded by a line starting where ND Hwy 6 crosses the South Dakota border; thence north on ND Hwy 6 to I-94; thence west on I-94 to ND Hwy 49; thence north on ND Hwy 49 to ND Hwy 200; thence north on Mercer County Rd. 21 to the section line between sections 8 and 9 (T146N-R87W); thence north on that section line to the southern shoreline to Lake Sakakawea; thence east along the southern shoreline (including Mallard Island) of Lake Sakakawea to U.S. Hwy 83; thence south on U.S. Hwy 83 to ND Hwy 200; thence east on ND Hwy 200 to ND Hwy 41; thence south on ND Hwy 41 to U.S. Hwy 83; thence south on U.S. Hwy 83 to I-94; thence east on I-94 to U.S. Hwy 83; thence south on U.S. Hwy 83 to the South Dakota border; thence west along the South Dakota border to ND Hwy 6.

Rest of State: Remainder of North Dakota.

South Dakota

Canada Geese

Unit 1: Remainder of South Dakota.

Unit 2: Gregory, Hughes, Lyman, Perkins, and Stanley Counties; that portion of Potter County west of U.S. Highway 83; that portion of Sully County west of U.S. Highway 83; that portion of Bon Homme, Brule, Buffalo, Charles Mix, and Hyde County south and west of a line beginning at the Hughes-Hyde County line on SD Highway 34, east to Lees Boulevard, southeast to SD 34, east 7 miles to 350thAvenue, south to I-90, south and east on SD Highway 50 to Geddes, east on 285th Street to U.S. Highway 281, south on U.S. Highway 281 to SD 50, east and south on SD 50 to the Bon Homme-Yankton County boundary; that portion of Fall River County east of SD Highway 71 and U.S. Highway 385; that portion of Custer County east of SD Highway 79 and south of French Creek; that portion of Dewey County south of BIA Road 8, BIA Road 9, and the section of U.S. 212 east of BIA Road 8 junction.

Unit 3: Bennett County.

Texas

Northeast Goose Zone: That portion of Texas lying east and north of a line beginning at the Texas-Oklahoma border at U.S. 81, then continuing south to Bowie and then southeasterly along U.S. 81 and U.S. 287 to I-35W and I-35 to the juncture with I-10 in San Antonio, then east on I-10 to the Texas-Louisiana border.

Southeast Goose Zone: That portion of Texas lying east and south of a line beginning at the International Toll Bridge at Laredo, then continuing north following I-35 to the juncture with I-10 in San Antonio, then easterly along I-10 to the Texas-Louisiana border.

West Goose Zone: The remainder of the State.

Wyoming (Central Flyway Portion)

Dark Geese:

Zone C1: Converse, Hot Springs, Natrona, and Washakie Counties, and the portion of Park County east of the Shoshone National Forest boundary and south of a line beginning where the Shoshone National Forest boundary crosses Park County Road 8VC, easterly along said road to Park County Road 1AB, easterly along said road to Wyoming Highway 120, northerly along said highway to Wyoming Highway 294, southeasterly along said highway to Lane 9, easterly along said lane to the town of Powel and Wyoming Highway 14A, easterly along said highway to the Park County and Big Horn County Line.

Zone C2: Albany, Campbell, Crook, Johnson, Laramie, Niobrara, Sheridan, and Weston Counties, and that portion of Carbon County east of the Continental Divide; that portion of Park County west of the Shoshone National Forest boundary, and that portion of Park County north of a line beginning where the Shoshone National Forest boundary crosses Park County Road 8VC, easterly along said road to Park County Road 1AB, easterly along said road to Wyoming Highway 120, northerly along said highway to Wyoming Highway 294, southeasterly along said highway to Lane 9, easterly along said lane to the town of Powel and Wyoming Highway 14A, easterly along said highway to the Park County and Big Horn County Line.

Pacific Flyway

Arizona

North Zone: Game Management Units 1-5, those portions of Game Management Units 6 and 8 within Coconino County, and Game Management Units 7, 9, and 12A.

South Zone: Those portions of Game Management Units 6 and 8 in Yavapai County, and Game Management Units 10 and 12B-45.

California

Northeastern Zone: In that portion of California lying east and north of a line beginning at the intersection of Interstate 5 with the California-Oregon line; south along Interstate 5 to its junction with Walters Lane south of the town of Yreka; west along Walters Lane to its junction with Easy Street; south along Easy Street to the junction with Old Highway 99; south along Old Highway 99 to the point of intersection with Interstate 5 north of the town of Weed; south along Interstate 5 to its junction with Highway 89; east and south along Highway 89 to main street Greenville; north and east to its junction with North Valley Road; south to its junction of Diamond Mountain Road; north and east to its junction with North Arm Road; south and west to the junction of North Valley Road; south to the junction with Arlington Road (A22); west to the junction of Highway 89; south and west to the junction of Highway 70; east on Highway 70 to Highway 395; south and east on Highway 395 to the point of intersection with the California-Nevada State line; north along the California-Nevada State line to the junction of the California-Nevada-Oregon State lines west along the California-Oregon State line to the point of origin.

Colorado River Zone: Those portions of San Bernardino, Riverside, and Imperial Counties east of a line extending from the Nevada border south along U.S. 95 to Vidal Junction; south on a road known as “Aqueduct Road” in San Bernardino County through the town of Rice to the San Bernardino-Riverside County line; south on a road known in Riverside County as the “Desert Center to Rice Road” to the town of Desert Center; east 31 miles on I-10 to the Wiley Well Road; south on this road to Wiley Well; southeast along the Army-Milpitas Road to the Blythe, Brawley, Davis Lake intersections; south on the Blythe-Brawley paved road to the Ogilby and Tumco Mine Road; south on this road to U.S. 80; east 7 miles on U.S. 80 to the Andrade-Algodones Road; south on this paved road to the Mexican border at Algodones, Mexico.

Southern Zone: That portion of southern California (but excluding the Colorado River Zone) south and east of a line extending from the Pacific Ocean east along the Santa Maria River to CA 166 near the City of Santa Maria; east on CA 166 to CA 99; south on CA 99 to the crest of the Tehachapi Mountains at Tejon Pass; east and north along the crest of the Tehachapi Mountains to CA 178 at Walker Pass; east on CA 178 to U.S. 395 at the town of Inyokern; south on U.S. 395 to CA 58; east on CA 58 to I-15; east on I-15 to CA 127; north on CA 127 to the Nevada border.

Imperial County Special Management Area: The area bounded by a line beginning at Highway 86 and the Navy Test Base Road; south on Highway 86 to the town of Westmoreland; continue through the town of Westmoreland to Route S26; east on Route S26 to Highway 115; north on Highway 115 to Weist Rd.; north on Weist Rd. to Flowing Wells Rd.; northeast on Flowing Wells Rd. to the Coachella Canal; northwest on the Coachella Canal to Drop 18; a straight line from Drop 18 to Frink Rd.; south on Frink Rd. to Highway 111; north on Highway 111 to Niland Marina Rd.; southwest on Niland Marina Rd. to the old Imperial County boat ramp and the water line of the Salton Sea; from the water line of the Salton Sea, a straight line across the Salton Sea to the Salinity Control Research Facility and the Navy Test Base Road; southwest on the Navy Test Base Road to the point of beginning.

Balance-of-State Zone: The remainder of California not included in the Northeastern, Southern, and the Colorado River Zones.

North Coast Special Management Area: The Counties of Del Norte and Humboldt.

Sacramento Valley Special Management Area: That area bounded by a line beginning at Willows south on I-5 to Hahn Road; easterly on Hahn Road and the Grimes-Arbuckle Road to Grimes; northerly on CA 45 to the junction with CA 162; northerly on CA 45/162 to Glenn; and westerly on CA 162 to the point of beginning in Willows.

Colorado (Pacific Flyway Portion)

West Central Area: Archuleta, Delta, Dolores, Gunnison, LaPlata, Montezuma, Montrose, Ouray, San Juan, and San Miguel Counties and those portions of Hinsdale, Mineral, andSaguache Counties west of the Continental Divide.

State Area: The remainder of the Pacific-Flyway Portion of Colorado.

Idaho

Zone 1: Adams, Benewah, Bonner, Boundary, Clearwater, Idaho, Kootenai, Latah, Lewis, Nez Perce, Shoshone, and Valley Counties.

Zone 2: The Counties of Ada; Boise; Canyon; those portions of Elmore north and east of I-84, and south and west of I-84, west of ID 51, except the Camas Creek drainage; Gem; Owyhee west of ID 51; Payette; and Washington.

Zone 3: The Counties of Cassia except the Minidoka National Wildlife Refuge; those portions of Elmore south of I-84 east of ID 51, and within the Camas Creek drainage; Gooding; Jerome; Lincoln; Minidoka; Owyhee east of ID 51; and Twin Falls.

Zone 4: The Counties of Bear Lake; Bingham within the Blackfoot Reservoir drainage; Blaine; Bonneville, Butte; Camas; Caribou except the Fort Hall Indian Reservation; Cassia within the Minidoka National Wildlife Refuge; Clark; Custer; Franklin; Fremont; Jefferson; Lemhi; Madison; Oneida; and Teton.

Zone 5: All lands and waters within the Fort Hall Indian Reservation, including private inholdings; Bannock County; Bingham County, except that portion within the Blackfoot Reservoir drainage; and Power County.

Montana (Pacific Flyway Portion)

East of the Divide Zone: The Pacific Flyway portion of the State located east of the Continental Divide.

West of the Divide Zone: The remainder of the Pacific Flyway portion of Montana.

Nevada

Lincoln Clark County Zone: All of Lincoln and Clark Counties.

Remainder-of-the-State Zone: The remainder of Nevada.

New Mexico (Pacific Flyway Portion)

North Zone: The Pacific Flyway portion of New Mexico located north of I-40.

South Zone: The Pacific Flyway portion of New Mexico located south of I-40.

Oregon

Southwest Zone: Those portions of Douglas, Coos, and Curry Counties east of Highway 101, and Josephine and Jackson Counties.

South Coast Zone: Those portions of Douglas, Coos, and Curry Counties west of Highway 101.

Northwest Special Permit Zone: That portion of western Oregon west and north of a line running south from the Columbia River in Portland along I-5 to OR 22 at Salem; then east on OR 22 to the Stayton Cutoff; then south on the Stayton Cutoff to Stayton and due south to the Santiam River; then west along the north shore of the Santiam River to I-5; then south on I-5 to OR 126 at Eugene; then west on OR 126 to Greenhill Road; then south on Greenhill Road to Crow Road; then west on Crow Road to Territorial Hwy; then west on Territorial Hwy to OR 126; then west on OR 126 to Milepost 19; then north to the intersection of the Benton and Lincoln County line; then north along the western boundary of Benton and Polk Counties to the southern boundary of Tillamook County; then west along the Tillamook County boundary to the Pacific Coast.

Lower Columbia/N. Willamette Valley Management Area: Those portions of Clatsop, Columbia, Multnomah, and Washington Counties within the Northwest Special Permit Zone.

Tillamook County Management Area: All of Tillamook County is open to goose hunting except for the following area—beginning in Cloverdale at Hwy 101, west on Old Woods Rd to Sand Lake Rd at Woods, north on Sand Lake Rd to the intersection with McPhillips Dr, due west (∼200 yards) from the intersection to the Pacific coastline, south on the Pacific coastline to Neskowin Creek, east along the north shores of Neskowin Creek and then Hawk Creek to Salem Ave, east on Salem Ave in Neskowin to Hawk Ave, east on Hawk Ave to Hwy 101, north on Hwy 101 at Cloverdale, to the point of beginning.

Northwest Zone: Those portions of Clackamas, Lane, Linn, Marion, Multnomah, and Washington Counties outside of the Northwest Special Permit Zone and all of Lincoln County.

Eastern Zone: Hood River, Wasco, Sherman, Gilliam, Morrow, Umatilla, Deschutes, Jefferson, Crook, Wheeler, Grant, Baker, Union, and Wallowa Counties.

Harney and Lake County Zone: All of Harney and Lake Counties.

Klamath County Zone: All of Klamath County.

Malheur County Zone: All of Malheur County.

Utah

Northern Utah Zone: All of Cache and Rich Counties, and that portion of Box Elder County beginning at I-15 and the Weber-Box Elder County line; east and north along this line to the Weber-Cache County line; east along this line to the Cache-Rich County line; east and south along the Rich County line to the Utah-Wyoming State line; north along this line to the Utah-Idaho State line; west on this line to Stone, Idaho-Snowville, Utah road; southwest on this road to Locomotive Springs Wildlife Management Area; east on the county road, past Monument Point and across Salt Wells Flat, to the intersection with Promontory Road; south on Promontory Road to a point directly west of the northwest corner of the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge boundary; east along an imaginary line to the northwest corner of the Refuge boundary; south and east along the Refuge boundary to the southeast corner of the boundary; northeast along the boundary to the Perry access road; east on the Perry access road to I-15; south on I-15 to the Weber-Box Elder County line.

Remainder-of-the-State Zone: The remainder of Utah.

Washington

Area 1: Skagit, Island, and Snohomish Counties.

Area 2A (SW Quota Zone): Clark County, except portions south of the Washougal River; Cowlitz County; and Wahkiakum County.

Area 2B (SW Quota Zone): Pacific County.

Area 3: All areas west of the Pacific Crest Trail and west of the Big White Salmon River that are not included in Areas 1, 2A, and 2B.

Area 4: Adams, Benton, Chelan, Douglas, Franklin, Grant, Kittitas, Lincoln, Okanogan, Spokane, and Walla Walla Counties.

Area 5: All areas east of the Pacific Crest Trail and east of the Big White Salmon River that are not included in Area 4.

Brant

Pacific Flyway

California

North Coast Zone: Del Norte, Humboldt and Mendocino Counties.

South Coast Zone: Balance of the State.

Washington

Puget Sound Zone: Skagit County.

Coastal Zone: Pacific County.

Swans

Central Flyway

South Dakota: Aurora, Beadle, Brookings, Brown, Brule, Buffalo, Campbell, Clark, Codington, Davison, Deuel, Day, Edmunds, Faulk, Grant, Hamlin, Hand, Hanson, Hughes, Hyde, Jerauld, Kingsbury, Lake, Marshall, McCook, McPherson, Miner,Minnehaha, Moody, Potter, Roberts, Sanborn, Spink, Sully, and Walworth Counties.

Pacific Flyway

Montana (Pacific Flyway Portion)

Open Area: Cascade, Chouteau, Hill, Liberty, and Toole Counties and those portions of Pondera and Teton Counties lying east of U.S. 287-89.

Nevada

Open Area: Churchill, Lyon, and Pershing Counties.

Utah

Open Area: Those portions of Box Elder, Weber, Davis, Salt Lake, and Toole Counties lying west of I-15, north of I-80, and south of a line beginning from the Forest Street exit to the Bear River National Wildlife Refuge boundary; then north and west along the Bear River National Wildlife Refuge boundary to the farthest west boundary of the Refuge; then west along a line to Promontory Road; then north on Promontory Road to the intersection of SR 83; then north on SR 83 to I-84; then north and west on I-84 to State Hwy 30; then west on State Hwy 30 to the Nevada-Utah State line; then south on the Nevada-Utah State line to I-80.

References

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